EARTH SCIENCE > CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > TELECONNECTIONS > MADDEN-JULIAN OSCILLATION
In 1971 Roland Madden and Paul Julian stumbled upon a 40-50 day
oscillation when analyzing zonal wind anomalies in the tropical
Pacific. They used ten years of pressure records at Canton (at 2.8B0 S
in the Pacific) and upper level winds at Singapore.
The oscillation of surface and upper-level winds was remarkably clear
in Singapore. Until the early 1980's little attention was paid to this
oscillation, which became known as the Madden and Julian
Oscillation(MJO), and some scientists questioned its global
significance. Since the 1982-83 El Nino event, low-frequency
variations in the tropics, both on intra-annual (less than a year) and
inter-annual (more than a year) timescales, have received much more
attention, and the number of MJO-related publications grew rapidly.
For a full bibliography of MJO papers, see: