High resolution studies of cosmogenic beryllium isotopes (10Be and 7Be) at Law Dome
Entry ID: ASAC_3064

[ Update this Record ]

Summary
Abstract: Metadata record for data from AAS (ASAC) Project 3064.

Public
10Be and 7Be are naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes produced in the Earth's atmosphere and surface by cosmic rays, at a rate controlled by the activity of the Sun (and other factors). 10Be is long-lived while 7Be 'decays' much more quickly. Using the Air-link we now have an opportunity to return ice core samples containing the short-lived 7Be isotope to Australia for measurement. This project proposes to use 10Be and 7Be measurements in Antarctic ice to improve our interpretation of past solar activity and better understand its linkage to global climate change.

Project objectives:
Cosmogenic 10Be (t1/2 = 1.5 x 10^6 years) from polar ice cores is the most reliable proxy for investigating past solar variability on decadal to millennial time scales [Muschler et al., 2007; Beer 2000]. However, interpretation of 10Be records is currently hindered by a poor understanding of the processes which deliver 10Be to the polar ice core archives [Muscheler et al., 2007; Bard and Frank, 2006]. The processes responsible for the transport and deposition of 10Be to the polar ice sheets must be understood in order to reconstruct an accurate history of solar activity.

This project uses a new technique, based on the rapid sample transport capability of the Air-link, to examine transport and deposition of 10Be. The Air-link opens the opportunity to retrieve and return to Australia in a reasonable time frame, samples of the shorter-lived cosmogenic Be isotope, 7Be (t1/2 = 53 days), alongside the longer-lived 10Be. The 10Be/7Be ratio can then be interpreted as a 'lock' for air mass age providing valuable information on atmospheric pathways and residence times [Dibb et al., 1994].

The project will collect six shallow (5 m) PICO cores from Dome Summit South (DSS) Law Dome. The samples will be delivered by plane at first opportunity to Hobart and then transferred directly to Australian Nuclear Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in Sydney for measurement of 7Be by gamma ray spectroscopy and 10Be by accelerator mass spectroscopy. There will be sufficient material for a high resolution record of 7Be spanning eight months and 10Be spanning four years.

Scientific objectives of the project are as follows:
1. Use the 10Be/7Be ratio to inform on atmospheric pathways, atmospheric residence times and stratosphere / troposphere exchange patterns responsible for 10Be transport and deposition to Law Dome.
2. Constrain the seasonal cycle in 10Be and the timing, pervasiveness and origin of the summer maximum in 10Be concentrations.
3. Work toward quantifying climate modulation of 10Be concentrations at Law Dome.
4. Provide guidelines for improving the interpretation of solar activity from ice core records of 10Be.

Taken from the 2008-2009 Progress Report:
Progress against objectives:
7 samples from a snow pit (S0-S6) along with 2 'blank' samples have been measured by gamma spectroscopy for 7Be and then by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for 10Be. Additionally, between these two measurements aliquots were taken from each sample and measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES) at two separate laboratories for 9Be (carrier) concentration. As at 16th April 2009 this data is still under interpretation. The data appears to be of good quality and we hope that it will advance the scientific objectives.

Taken from the 2009-2010 Progress Report:
Progress against objectives:
1. 6 samples from a 0.6m snow pit plus 3 associated 'blanks' were prepared and measured for 7Be by gamma spectroscopy. Aliquots were taken and measured for 9Be concentration by ICP-AES. These samples were then further processed and have been measured for 10Be/9Be by AMS on the ANTARES accelerator. A preliminary plot of the 7Be and 10Be concentrations and 7Be/10Be ratio is available on request. Interpretation of this record, and the record from the 08/09 season, is underway and will be advanced by modeling output from EACHAM5-HAM; Joel Pedro is arranging this with Ulla Heikkila (further discussions in Europe in June 2010). Furthermore, the AMS cathodes have been re-measured twice for 7Be/9Be by AMS on the ANTARES accelerator, following successful development of this new technique in April 2010.
2. 19 samples from 3x 2.66m PICO plus 2 associated 'blanks' were processed and have been measured for 10Be/9Be by AMS on the ANTARES accelerator. AMS data analysis is essentially complete however full interpretation of this record requires age/depth chronology from del18O analysis. I believe that this will be finalised by the end of April. The 10Be/9Be data is of high quality and apparently confirms the expected seasonal signal.
3. The two data sets mentioned above will further advance this objective.
4. Comparison of the measured 10Be concentration in Law Dome ice and the neutron monitor record from McMurdo, along with recognition of seasonal signals at Law Dome, are providing guidelines for interpreting the recent solar activity record at this site. Further comparison with modelled data should permit extension to the palaeo-record.
5. This objective has not yet been achieved.

We have developed a unique, high resolution (~ monthly) long-term (since 2000) record of 10Be concentration in Antarctic ice. In recent years we have been able to add 7Be concentration data to this record.

Continuation of this unique record is scientifically important, as is evident from the scientific objectives stated above. It was particularly important that our record included in 7Be and 10Be measurements from this unprecedented (at least during the instrumental period) epoch of low solar activity. This offers special (perhaps once in a lifetime) opportunity to better understand production, transport and deposition of cosmogenic beryllium into the Antarctic ice sheet.

Taken from the 2010-2011 Progress Report:

Progress against the stated Scientific objectives of the project:

1. To study the production and deposition of 7Be and 10Be during the deepest solar minimum in nearly a century (and possibly as the Sun enters a new cycle), at high temporal resolution.

Samples collected, 7Be and 10Be measurements completed, chronology and interpretation pending.

2. Use the 10Be/7Be ratio to inform on atmospheric pathways, atmospheric residence times and stratosphere / troposphere exchange patterns responsible for 10Be transport and deposition to Law Dome.

This is ongoing work, building particularly on the good data collected last season (09/10). Progress against this objective will intensify when Post Doctoral student Dr Ulla Heikkila commences work at ANSTO on 04/08/11. Dr Heikkila will be modelling the production, transport and deposition of 7Be and 10Be to Law Dome using the EACHAM5-HAM General Circulation Model. Work has already commenced on installing and running this model at ANSTO.

3. Identify short-term spikes in 10Be and 7Be caused by solar proton events (SPE).

The new data has not yet been scrutinised for such events.

4. Further constrain the observed seasonal cycle in 10Be and the timing, pervasiveness and origin of the summer maximum in 10Be concentrations.

Once the chronology becomes available this objective will be achieved.

5. Work toward quantifying climate modulation of 10Be concentrations at Law Dome.

Ongoing.

6. Provide guidelines for improving the interpretation of palaeo-solar activity from ice core records of 10Be.

Ongoing

See the child record(s) for the data.

Related URL
Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: Public information for ASAC project 3064


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset


This data set description is a member of a collection. Click to see members of this collection.

Geographic Coverage
 N: -66.71 S: -66.75  E: 112.85  W: 112.81

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 2008-09-30
Stop Date: 2009-03-31


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
PALEOCLIMATE >ICE CORE RECORDS >ISOTOPES    [Definition]
SUN-EARTH INTERACTIONS >SOLAR ACTIVITY >COSMIC RAYS    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
ENVIRONMENT


Platform
Aircraft    [Information]


Instrument
MASS SPECTROMETERS    [Information]
AES >Atmospheric Emission Spectrometer    [Information]
GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETERS    [Information]


Quality
The values provided in temporal and spatial coverage are approximate only.

Taken from the 2008-2009 Progress Report:

Variations to work plan or objectives:
The Air-Link schedule was seriously delayed and curtailed for 08/09 due to the accident at Davis. Additionally, the Aurora Basin team were unable to make their expedition and instead made an impromptu trip to DSS. As a consequence they were able to take samples for AAS #3064 on 29/12/09. The new AQIS importation restrictions on Antarctic ice and snow samples resulted in unacceptable delays in transporting the samples from Hobart to the ANSTO laboratories in Lucas Heights and further delays while the samples were given a 50 kGr gamma radiation dose at ANSTO. These delays meant that the 7Be signal had decayed and to some extent spoilt the efficient return of the samples to Australia by the Air-Link. It is hoped that AQIS will not prove to be such an impediment for 09/10 samples.

Field work:
Sampling Date: 20:000 29 12 2008.

Snow Pit Location: S 66o 43.812' : E 112o 50.143' (100 m South of AWS 02).
Sampled by: Joel Pedro, Tessa Vance, Troy Metcalfe, Mark Curran.
Sampled using stainless steel shovel, stainless steel set square and stainless steel ruler.
6 samples were taken from the top to base of pit, varying in mass from 1 to 8 kg. All these samples have been processed and measured for 7Be and 10Be. Duplicate samples for the top four were also collected and are at ANSTO in storage.

3 x ~ 6 m PICO cores were taken from DSS for high-res 10Be. These samples were chosen to overlap three previous quasi-monthly data sets, so the record will extent from 2000 to 2009. These samples are still in Hobart, awaiting age-depth calibration.

Laboratory activity/analysis:
6 samples were taken from the top to base of pit, varying in mass from 1 to 8 kg. All these samples have been processed and measured for 7Be and 10Be. Additionally, between these two measurements aliquots were taken from each sample and measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES) at two separate laboratories for 9Be (carrier) concentration. Duplicate samples for the top four were also collected and are at ANSTO in storage. At this stage there is no intention to utilise the duplicate samples and they will remain in storage. Some further analysis of the 10Be data collected during RUN#74 is required before final 10Be/9Be ratios are derived. It is estimated this plus other data analysis will be completed by the end of May 2009.

3 x ~ 6 m PICO cores were taken from DSS for high-res 10Be. These samples were chosen to overlap three previous quasi-monthly data sets, so the record will extent from 2000 to 2009. These samples are still in Hobart, awaiting age-depth calibration. Timing of this is dependent upon my colleagues in Glaciology and I don't believe this sample set has been set as a high priority. Once the chronology has been determined and the samples cut they can be processed and measured for 10Be at ANSTO within ~ 2 months. Note that these PICO cores were taken to provide continuity in our 10Be record and that the main objective of this project concerned the 7Be measurements in the snow pit samples.

3 x ~ 6 m PICO cores were taken from DSS for high-res 10Be. These samples were chosen to overlap three previous quasi-monthly data sets, so the record will extent from 2000 to 2009. These samples are still in Hobart, awaiting age-depth calibration.

Taken from the 2009-2010 Progress Report:
Field work:
Dr Tas van Ommen, Dr Andrew Moy and assistants were able to dig and sample a 0.6m snow pit and collect 3x 2.6m PICO cores on 9 Jan 2010 200m NE DSS Hatch.

Laboratory activity/analysis:
Snow pit samples:

Melting, Filtering, Columns: By Krista Simon and Joel Pedro at ACECRC on 21-22nd Jan 2010 .
Column work and preparation of LSC vials completed by Krista Simon at ANSTO by 28th Jan 2010.
Gamma spectroscopy of LSC vials and report completed by Dr Lida Mokhber-Shahin at ANSTO by 5th Feb 2010.
Preparation of BeO cathodes completed by Krista Simon at ANSTO by 9th Mar 2010.

AMS measurement of 10Be/9Be completed at ANSTO by Dr Andrew Smith by 11th Mar 2010.
Results of ICP-AES measurement of 9Be concentration of aliquots provided by Ecowise on 6th Apr 2010.
AMS measurement of 7Be/9Be completed by Dr Andrew Smith at ANSTO by 13th Apr 2010.
Del18O and age/depth chronology by Dr Tas van Ommen and Joel Pedro expected to be completed by end Apr 2010.

PICO samples:

Lab cutting: By Joel Pedro and Merideth Nation at ACECRC on 21 Jan 2010 .
Melting, Filtering, Columns: By Krista Simon and Joel Pedro at ACECRC on 21-22nd Jan 2010 .
Column work and preparation of BeO cathodes completed by Krista Simon at ANSTO by 10th Mar 2010.
AMS measurement of 10Be/9Be completed at ANSTO by Dr Andrew Smith by 25th Mar 2010.
Del18O and age/depth chronology by Tas van Ommen and Joel Pedro expected to be completed by end Apr 2010.

Taken from the 2010-2011 Progress Report:

Field work:
A 60 cm pit dug by Tas van Ommen and assistants on 14 Feb 2011. Location S66 46.108 E112 48.675. The PICO cores were taken on the same day at S66 46.100 E112 48.669. These locations are about 200m East of the DSS Hatch.

The samples amounted to 8 large samples (1.0 to 4.7 kg) from the pit for 7Be and 10Be measurement and 20 samples (0.5 - 0.9 kg) from the PICO cores to continue the quasi-monthly 10Be record.

Laboratory activity/analysis:
All samples were melted, filtered and passed through cation columns at ACE CRC laboratories during 28th February and 4th March 2011. This work was undertaken by Joel Pedro (PhD candidate) and Krista Simon (ANSTO). The columns were shipped to ANSTO on 04/03/11.

Once at ANSTO the pit samples were processed first to BeO and were measured for 7Be on 15/03/11. Note that these samples were only measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) now that it has been proven against gamma spectroscopy with the DSS0910-pit samples. The PICO samples were subsequently processed and the AMS measurements were completed (28/04/11). Finalised data for 7Be and 10Be is not yet available however the results look good.

The sample chronology is well underway and is required to correct measured 7Be activity to the time of deposition and of course to interpret the data.


Access Constraints
See the child record(s) for details on data access.


Use Constraints
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference at the provided http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=ASAC_3064 when using these data.


Keywords
Ice core
10Be
7Be
cosmic rays


Data Set Progress
COMPLETE


Data Center
Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://data.aad.gov.au

Data Center Personnel
Name: DATA OFFICER AADC
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: metadata at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia


Personnel
ANDREW M SMITH
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +61 2 9717 9054
Fax: +61 2 9717 3257
Email: ams at ansto.gov.au
Contact Address:
ANTARES AMS
PMB 1
Physics Division, ANSTO
City: Menai
Province or State: New South Wales
Postal Code: 2234
Country: Australia


DAVE J. CONNELL
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: dave.connell at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia


Publications/References
J. B. Pedro, U. E. Heikkila, A. M. Smith, T. D. van Ommen (2010), 10Be in ice at high resolution: Solar activity and climate signals observed and GCM-modeled in Law Dome ice cores, poster presentation at EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria

J. Pedro, A. Smith and T. van Ommen (Unknown), Production and climate signals in a high resolution 10Be firn core from Law Dome, Antartica, manuscript in preparation

J. Pedro, C. Elsasser, D. Wagenbach, T. van Ommen, R. Weller and A. Smith (Unknown), Inter-comparison of 10Be in Law Dome ice and Neumayer surface air, manuscript in preparation

J. Pedro, U. Heikkila, T. van Ommen, A. Smith and J. Beer (Unknown), 10Be measured in a high-resolution Law Dome firn core and modeled using the ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model, manuscript in preparation

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2009-04-22
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-08-29

[ Update this Record ]


Link to Web Site