Conterminous U.S. AVHRR Bi-Weekly Composites
Entry ID: USAVHRR

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Summary
Abstract: The goal of the Conterminous U.S. AVHRR project is to compile a
comprehensive time series data set of calibrated, georegistered daily
observations and biweekly maximum normalized difference vegetation index
(NDVI) composites for each annual growing season. This data set has
applications for environmental monitoring and for assessing impacts of
global climate change.

The Conterminous U.S. AVHRR Data Set is comprised of biweekly maximum NDVI
composites, which were created from daily satellite observations. The NDVI
composites include 10 bands of information, including AVHRR channels 1-5,
maximum NDVI, satellite zenith, solar zenith, and relative azimuth. The daily
observations, bands 1-9, have been calibrated to reflectance, scaled to byte
data, and geometrically registered to the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area map
projection. The 10th band is a pointer to identify the date and scene ID of
the source daily observation (scene) for each pixel.

The compositing process required each daily overpass to be registered to a
common map projection with precise registration to ensure that from day to
day each 1-km pixel represented the exact same ground location. The Lambert
Azimuthal Equal Area map projection provides for equal area characteristics,
which enables easy measurement of area throughout the data. Each daily
observation for the growing season was registered to the base image using
image-to-image correlation.

The NDVI was calculated from calibrated data, which had been scaled to
byte range and geometrically registered. The NDVI is the difference
between near-infrared (AVHRR Channel 2) and visible (AVHRR Channel 1)
reflectance values divided by total reflectance.

The method for determining the portion of each overpass to be included
in the composite image was to retain pixels having the highest NDVI
values. The NDVI was examined pixel by pixel for each overpass within
the biweekly compositing period to determine the maximum value. The
output of the compositing process is a 10-band image as described
above.

Often when displaying data covering large areas, such as AVHRR data, it is
beneficial to include an overlay of familiar linework as a location aid or a
mask or strata to derive statistical data for regions. All of the linework
images represent lines in raster format as 1-km cells, and the strata are
represented as polygons registered to the AVHRR data. The linework and raster
polygon data sets included are the climatic division boundaries, major land
resource area boundaries, and county boundaries.

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Geographic Coverage
 N: 50.0 S: 23.0  E: -56.0  W: -125.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: U.S. Geological Survey
Dataset Title: Conterminous U.S. AVHRR Bi-Weekly
Composites

Dataset Release Date: 1989
Dataset Release Place: Sioux Falls, South Dakota,
USA

Dataset Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Data Presentation Form: Remote Sensing
Image


Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1989-01-04


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA


Science Keywords
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >VEGETATION COVER >NDVI    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >LAND USE/LAND COVER >LAND COVER    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >LAND USE/LAND COVER >LAND RESOURCES    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >INFRARED WAVELENGTHS >INFRARED IMAGERY    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS >VISIBLE IMAGERY    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
BIOTA
GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
IMAGERY/BASE MAPS/EARTH COVER


Platform
NOAA-10 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-10    [Information]
NOAA-11 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-11    [Information]
NOAA-12 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-12    [Information]
NOAA-14 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-14    [Information]
NOAA-15 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-15    [Information]
NOAA-16 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-16    [Information]
NOAA-17 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-17    [Information]
NOAA-18 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-18    [Information]
NOAA-19 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-19    [Information]


Instrument
AVHRR >Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer    [Information]


Access Constraints
None


Use Constraints
There is no guarantee of warranty concerning the accuracy of these data. Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since the data was collected and that some parts of these data may no longer represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use these data for critical applications without a full awareness of their limitations. Acknowledgement of the originating agencies would be appreciated in products derived from these data. Any user who modifies the data set is obligated to describe the types of modifications they perform. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent the data set, nor to imply that changes made were approved or endorsed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Please refer to http://www.usgs.gov/privacy.html for the USGS disclaimer.


Keywords
AVHRR
CLIMATIC DIVISION
COMPOSITE
COUNTY
USGS/EROS
FIPS
HRPT
IMAGERY
LAC
LAND RESOURCE AREA
LAS
NDVI
RADIANCE
RASTER
SATELLITE
USGS


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
USGS/EROS


Data Center
Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://eros.usgs.gov/
Dataset ID: USAVHRR

Data Center Personnel
Name: EROS CENTER
Phone: 605-594-6151
Phone: 800-252-4547
Fax: 605-594-6589
Email: lta at usgs.gov
Contact Address:
LTA Customer Services
U.S. Geological Survey
EROS Center
47914 252nd Street
City: Sioux Falls
Province or State: SD
Postal Code: 57198-0001
Country: USA



Distribution
Distribution_Media: Downloadable
Fees: None


Personnel
EROS CENTER
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 605-594-6151
Phone: 800-252-4547
Fax: 605-594-6589
Email: lta at usgs.gov
Contact Address:
LTA Customer Services
U.S. Geological Survey
EROS Center
47914 252nd Street
City: Sioux Falls
Province or State: SD
Postal Code: 57198-0001
Country: USA


LONG TERM ARCHIVE
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: 605-594-6594
Fax: 605-594-6589
Email: lta at usgs.gov
Contact Address:
Information Systems Management
U.S. Geological Survey
EROS Center
47914 252nd Street
City: Sioux Falls
Province or State: SD
Postal Code: 57198-0001
Country: USA


Publications/References
Ailts, B.L., Akkerman, D.B., Quirk, B.K., and Steinwand, D.R., 1990, LAS
5.0--an image processing system for research and production
environments, in American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing American Congress of Surveying and Mapping Annual Convention, Denver, Colorado, Proceedings: v.4, p. 1-12.

Holben, B.N., 1986, Characteristics of maximum-value composite images from
temporal AVHRR data: The International Journal of Remote Sensing, v.7, no.11, p. 1,417.

Creation and Review Dates
Last DIF Revision Date: 2013-05-14

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