Climatic Extremes of the Summer of 1998Entry ID: gov.noaa.ncdc.C00525
Abstract: Climatic Extremes of the Summer of 1998 is a technical report prepared by, and available from, the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Regions of the U.S. and other parts of the world experienced a variety of weather and climate extremes during the summer of 1998. This report describes some of these events and conditions, including drought and fires in Florida, a heat wave and drought across parts of the south, flooding in China, flooding in parts of the U.S., Hurricane Bonnie striking North Carolina and Virginia, and an overall review of U.S. and global climatic conditions. Overall damages and costs for the events described in this report exceeded 30 billion (including over 10 billion in the U.S.), and the death toll exceeded 3000 (including over 200 fatalities in the U.S.).
Purpose: To make a wide range of climatic data available to researchers and the public.
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION: technical report
CURRENTNESS REFERENCE: Ground Condition
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Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Dataset Title: Climatic Extremes of the Summer of 1998
Dataset Release Date: 1998-11-01
Data Presentation Form: documentOnline Resource: http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodn...
Start Date: 1998-06-01Stop Date: 1998-08-31
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA > CYCLONES
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA > DROUGHT
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA > HURRICANES
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > MAXIMUM/MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > SURFACE WINDS
ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > PRECIPITATION AMOUNT
ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > PRECIPITATION ANOMALIES
ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > RAIN
HUMAN DIMENSIONS > NATURAL HAZARDS > WILDFIRES
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > FLOODS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > STAGE HEIGHT
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER
OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > WATER TEMPERATURE
CLIMATE INDICATORS > LAND SURFACE/AGRICULTURE INDICATORS > DROUGHT INDICES > PALMER DROUGHT CROP MOISTURE INDEX
Quality This mosaic was created from a series of photographs covering the coastline of the Laurens Peninsula captured during 1980 using a Hasselblad camera: film CASC9495 frames 51-56 and 58-60. A single photo captured using a Linhof camera in 1987/88 was also used: film ANTC1210 run 2 frame 182.
Dr Jenny Scott visited Heard Island during 2000 to conduct vegetation surveys. Dr Scott used the ... photography as a base for her mapping and also used a global positioning system to coordinate control points in the photography.
A digital elevation model was obtained from Radarsat using 1997 radar imagery.
The aerial photographs were ortho rectified using the ground control obtained by Dr Scott, and additional derived points read off the Orthorectified Digital Globe image for Laurens Peninsula, and the digital elevation model obtained from Radarsat. The inner orientation parameters for the cameras were unknown but the focal length was derived by first measuring the diagonal distance across the negative (this gave an approximate focal length). The final value for the focal length was computed using the ERDAS OrthoBase Pro Self Calibrating Bundle Adjustment software. The focal length adopted for the camera was 82mm. The ERDAS software was used to perform a bundle adjustment on the photography using the ground control and tie points. The bundle adjustment resulted in average RMS errors of +/-6m in position and height (XY and Z).
For the residuals from the adjustment refer to the PDF available for download (see Related URL below).
Each image was then ortho rectified using the orientation parameters derived from the bundle adjustment and the Radarsat DEM. The orthorectified images were then joined to form an image mosaic for the Laurens Peninsula. The image mosaic was not colour balanced. The pixel size on the ground for each image is 0.82m. The image was projected to UTM Zone 43 (WGS84).
The adjustment accuracies achieved with aerial triangulation however are not indicative of the true position of the images.
The following factors affect the absolute position of the images:
1- The focal length used for the camera is only an estimate. It is not possible to perform an accurate calibration of the camera from the supplied ground control points. This will have a direct effect on the initial scale of the images which could result in some distortion of features.
2- Not all the coordinated Ground Control Points could be used in the adjustment.
3- The overlap of the images is minimal on some images. This makes the aerial triangulation process less robust.
4- Cloud cover on the images makes the location of tie points between images difficult, narrowing the range in which they can be placed.
Hence although the adjustment accuracy is to within +/-6m the absolute position of the mosaic is only +/- 160m
The coverage of the aerial photos is shown by the polygon shapefile available for download (see Related URL below).
Access Constraints Contact the technical contact at the AADC for access to the data. Access is restricted due to the size of the mosaic. The mosaic will be made available on CD. The mosaic is in ERDAS Imagine format and is 582 Mb.
Use Constraints This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License
Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=photo_mo... when using these data.
Data Set Progress
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +61 3 6232 3519
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: metadata at aad.gov.au
Australian Antarctic Division 203 Channel Highway
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2007-11-27
Last DIF Revision Date: 2011-05-10