PIROP Northwest AtlanticEntry ID: seamap280
Abstract: The PIROP (Programme Intégré de recherches sur les oiseaux pélagiques) data set, Atlantic subset, consists of geo-referenced vessel-based surveys to monitor pelagic seabirds. Most surveys were carried out by R.G. B. Brown from 'vessels of opportunity' supplied by the Bedford Institute for Oceanography (BIO) in Dartmouth/Halifax, but many other platforms and observers were used, too. During these ... surveys observations other than seabirds were also recorded, e.g. Waterfowl, Waterbirds, Songbirds, Raptors, Owls, Sea Mammals, and other sightings of interest (weather, oceanography, vessel activities, bird behaviour, etc.). The data collection period covers all seasons of 1966-1992, with most surveys being conducted between (late) summers of 1975-1987. The survey protocol originally consisted of unlimited width 10min transects, but was changed appr. 1984 towards a Tasker et al. (1984) type of survey (fixed-width strip transect). However, data and results from the PIROP database need to be interpreted as relative, and not absolute, abundance.
Purpose: The PIROP data were collected for Canadian seabird monitoring purposes, focusing on the Canadian Atlantic, but also on other areas relevant to Canadian birds such as waters off Peru, off West Africa and off Europe.
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION: Puffinus creatopus (Pink-footed Shearwater; ITIS: 174547) observed on 1982-08-16 12:00:00 at 53.9000:-55.5000 (id=151664) changed to Procellariidae ... (Shearwaters; ITIS: 174532) as P. creatopus does not occur in the Atlantic. The PIROP data set is a large pool of seabird data, which got extended and modified over the years, e.g. due to changes of objectives and staff. Appr. in 1998 the data were merged by CWS-Dartmouth office with the Manomet Bird Observatory Seabird database, which cover mostly the Gulf of Maine region.
CURRENTNESS REFERENCE: ground condition
SPATIAL DATA ORGANIZATION INFORMATION
Indirect Spatial Reference: Ship logs, stored at Bedford Institute for Oceanography
Direct Spatial Reference: Point
SDTS Point and Vector Object Type: Entity point
Point and Vector Object Count: 10 minute transects: 73,628; Sightings: 223,942
SPATIAL REFERENCE INFORMATION - GEODETIC MODEL
Horizontal Datum Name: D_WGS_1984
Ellipsoid Name: WGS_1984 Semi-major Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator of Flattening Ratio: 298.257224
NATIVE: IBM PC and MacIntosh, specifically designed PIROP database software and entry mask (Huettmann and Lock 1997); it is also possible to use PIROP data with FoxPro or dbASE.
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Canadian Wildlife Service
Dataset Title: PIROP Northwest Atlantic
Dataset Series Name: OBIS-SEAMAP
Dataset Release Date: 2006-03-21 18:32:15-05
Dataset Release Place: http://seamap.env.duke.edu/
Dataset Publisher: OBIS-SEAMAP
Data Presentation Form: vector digital data
This data set description is a member of a collection. The collection is described in
Start Date: 1965-01-22Stop Date: 1992-09-30
Latitude Resolution: 0.000167 Decimal degrees
Longitude Resolution: 0.000167 Decimal degrees
Horizontal Resolution Range: 1 meter - < 30 meters
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > BIRDS
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > BIRDS > DUCKS/GEESE/SWANS
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > BIRDS > EAGLES/FALCONS/HAWKS AND ALLIES
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > BIRDS > SANDPIPERS
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > BIRDS > LOONS
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > BIRDS > WADERS/GULLS/AUKS AND ALLIES
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > BIRDS > IBISES/SPOONBILLS
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS > CARNIVORES > SEALS/SEA LIONS/WALRUSES
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS > CETACEANS
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS > CETACEANS > BALEEN WHALES
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS > CARNIVORES
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS > CARNIVORES > BEARS > POLAR BEARS
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES > MAMMALS > CETACEANS > TOOTHED WHALES
Quality ATTRIBUTE ACCURACY REPORT: Sightings are referenced to the observer, the specific cruise and ship name, ship speed, time and date. Accuracy of bird ID and bird numbers are reported and presented in the database. For geo-referencing, normally there was no GPS available (but LORAN and ship navigation); few scientific names and classification has changed, e.g. subspecies. LOGICAL CONSISTENCY REPORT: ... Methods apparently changed after 1984 to follow closer Tasker et al. (1984) (from unlimited width transects to 300m wide strip-transects: 150m left and right). However, interpretation of data as index of relative abundance should not be affected for most species (e.g. as long as fully comparable conditions and species detectability is less than 150m). Potential biases could occur when birds flying by (snapshot counts' sensu' Tasker et al. 1984; see behaviour codes). Varying ship heights can affect how far seabird at sea can be detected. As described in the database, some transects are differing in length <> 10min and search effort (view angle <> 180 degrees forward). A minute transect consist of individual sightings; however, it needs to be assumed that some observers reported pooled sightings by species or transects. PIROP Database is split into two data sets, linked with a unique key field. PIROP dataset is divided into 4 octants (hemispheres). Time reference is made to Greenwich Time, not local or ship time. Ship speed is recorded to calculate seabirds per km transect. COMPLETENESS REPORT: Transects with confirmed absence are reported; however, absence need to be queried for 10minute transects where a specific species occurs but not another one (see Huettmann and Diamond 2001). High-turnover of observers might have included noise in the data. Some data and PIROP Notes were stored at BIO tapes, which were only in part recovered. Last data collected by R.G.B. Brown in the early 1990s were included into PIROP, also ferry and boat surveys off Grand Manan by F. Huettmann in the late 1990s (details Tony Lock). HORIZONTAL POSITIONAL ACCURACY REPORT: Latitude and Longitude (seconds). The 10 minute seabird transects were geo-referenced (latitude longitude, no seconds reported) at the beginning of each transect by the observer according to the ship log. If necessary, locations of specific observations within the 10 minute transect could be roughly obtained by extrapolating distance traveled using ship speed information. VERTICAL POSITIONAL ACCURACY REPORT: Ship cruise on water. Altitudinal variations are caused by tidal changes (irrelevant, occurs seldom), waves or ship height (both relevant e.g. view height of observer to detect seabirds). LINEAGE/PROCESS STEP: PROCESS DESCRIPTION: PIROP was set up by Paul Germaine and R.G.B. Brown, folowing closely King et al. (1967). Data were collected in the field on paper and notebooks, and in the office coded and transcribed, and then checked. Earlier database versions were used, some data were stored on BIO tapes; now all data were transformed to the Visual FoxPro software by Tony Lock (CWS-Dartmouth and a contractor). Analytical tools, e.g. bins, were produced appr. 1994 in EXCEL by Steven Gerriets and Tony Lock. PIROP data were analysed by A.W. Diamond and processed and queried by Eric Woodsworth at CWS in Ottawa. A PIROP software and data-entry mask was produced by Tony Lock and contractors in 1998; coding was unified. Additional old data were frequently added, e.g. by Falk Huettmann in 1997. A hardcopy of all PIROP data (state: 1997) was produced by Falk Huettmann and is located at ACWERN (Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network) at the University of New Brunswick (UNB, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management). In 1998 the Manomet Bird Observatory Seabird-database was implemented by Tony Lock. 1999 PIROP was transferred to CWS-Sackville, John Chardine. PROCESS DATE: Transcription and Checking: Throughout entire period
Access Constraints ACCESS CONSTRAINTS: None; public domain DISTRIBUTION LIABILITY: Not to hold OBIS-SEAMAP liable for errors in the data. While we have made every effort to ensure the quality of the database, we cannot guarantee the accuracy of these datasets. Also please refer to Use Constraints.
Use Constraints Database owner is HM Queen in right of Canada. The datasets should be used with the corresponding effort dataset. Not to use data contained in OBIS-SEAMAP in any publication, product, or commercial application without prior written consent of the original data provider. To cite both the data provider and OBIS-SEAMAP appropriately after approval of use is obtained. Also please refer to Distribution Liability.
Data Set Progress
Distribution Size: 71.088
Distribution Format: Visual FoxPro version 5,Windows 95/98/2000, NT
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Email: efujioka at duke.edu
LSRC A321 Box 90328
Province or State: NC
Postal Code: 27708
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Fax: +01-907 4746967
Email: fhuettmann at alaska.edu
419 Irving I, PO Box 757000
Province or State: AK
Postal Code: 99775-7000
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Canadian Wildlife Service 45 Alderney Drive
Province or State: NS
Postal Code: B2Y 2N6
The following references refer to the PIROP database and present an overview about the structure, application and value of the data:
-Brown R.G.B. 1967. Sea Birds off Halifax. Canadian Field-Naturalist 81:276-8.
-Brown R.G.B. 1970. Fulmar distribution: a Canadian perspective. Ibis 111:44-51.
-Brown, R.G.B. 1971. PIROP Instruction Manual. Canadian Wildlife Service, Dartmouth.
-Brown R.G.B. ... 1973. Transatlantic migration of Fulmars from the European Arctic. Canadian Field-Naturalist 87:312-3.
-Brown R.G.B. 1977. Atlas of eastern Canadian seabirds Supplement 1 Halifax-Bermuda transects. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.
-Brown R.G.B. 1979. Seabirds of the Senegal upwelling and adjacent waters. Ibis 121:283-92.
-Brown R.G.B. 1984. Seabirds in the Greenland, Barents and Norwegian Seas, February-April 1982. Polar Research 2:1-18.
-Brown R.G.B. 1986. Revised Atlas of Eastern Canadian Seabirds. Bedford Institute of Oceanography: Candian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.
-Brown R.G.B. 1988. The Wing-moult of Fulmars and Shearwaters (Procellariidae) in Canadian Atlantic Waters. Canadian Field-Naturalist 102:203-8.
-Brown R.G.B. 1991.Marine birds and climatic warming in the northwest Atlantic. In: Montevecchi W.A, Gaston A.J., eds. Studies of high-latitude seabirds.1.Behavioural, energetic, and oceanographic aspects of seabird feeding ecology. Volume Occasional Paper Number 1968. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.
-Brown R.G.B and D.N. Nettleship 1983. Seabird distribution studies. (Bedford Institute of Oceanography BIO Review '83). Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa..
-Brown R.G.B., Nettleship D.N., Germain P, Tull C.E., and Davis T. 1975. Atlas of eastern Canadian seabirds. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.
-Diamond A.W. 1985. A computer model of the energy demands of the seabirds of eastern and arctic Canada. Volume Final Report. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.
-Diamond A.W., Gaston A.J., and Brown R.G.B. 1986. Converting PIROP counts of seabirds at sea to absolute densities. Progress Notes No 164
-Diamond A.W., Gaston A.J., and Brown R.G.B.. 1993 Studies of high-latitude seabirds. 3.A model of the energy demands of the seabirds of eastern Arctic CanadaMontevecchi WA, ed. Occasional Paper Number 77. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa
-Germain P., Brown R.G.B., and Tull C.E. 1973. Autumn seabird distribution in Canadian Arctic and Greenland waters. Studies on Northern Seabirds. Manuscript Report (No. Huettmann, F. 1997. TraPirp2: SQL PIROP import codes from ASCII Text into dBASE format. ACWERN (Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network), Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada.
-Huettmann, F. 1998. An Ecological GIS Research Application for the Northern Atlantic-The PIROP Database Software, Environmental Data Sets and the Role of the Internet/WWW. In: Riekert W.-F. and Tochtermann K. (Eds.) Hypermedia im Umweltschutz Proceedings of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI) and Forschungsinstitut für anwendungsorientierte Wissensverarbeitung (FAW) Ulm. Umwelt-Informatik aktuell; Bd.17, Metropolis Verlag/Marburg. pp. 213-217.
-Huettmann F. 2000a. Environmental Determination of Seabird Distribution in the Northwest Atlantic. Atlantic Cooperative Ecology Wildlife Research Network (ACWERN). University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B./Canada
-Huettmann, F. 2000b. Making use of public large-scale environmental databases from the WWW and a GIS for georeferenced prediction modelling: A research application using Generalized Linear Models, Classification and Regression Trees and Neural Networks. In: Tochtermann, K. and Riekert W.-F. (Eds.) Hypermedia im Umweltschutz Proceedings of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI) and Forschungsinstitut für anwendungsorientierte Wissensverarbeitung (FAW) Ulm. Umwelt- Informatik aktuell; Bd.24, Metropolis Verlag/Marburg. pp. 308-312.
-Huettmann F. 2000. Seabird migration in the Canadian North Atlantic: moulting locations and movement patterns of immatures. Canadian Journal of Zoology 33:1-25.
-Huettmann, F. and Lock, T. 1997. A new software system for the PIROP database: data flow and an approach for a seabird-depth analysis. ICES Journal of Marine Science 54:518-23.
-Huettmann, F. and Diamond, A.W. 2001a. Using PCA Scores to classify species communities: an example using seabird classifications at sea. Journal for Applied Statistics 28:843-853.
-Huettmann F. and Diamond A.W. 2001b. Seabird colony locations and environmental determination of seabird distribution: A spatially explicit seabird breeding model in the Northwest Atlantic. Ecological Modelling 141: 261-298.
-King, W.B., Watson, G.E. and Gould, P.J. 1967. An application of automatic data processing to the study of the world ocean. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum. 123, No 3609.
-Lock A.R., Brown R.G.B., Gerriets S.H. 1994. Gazetteer of Marine Birds in Atlantic Canada. Canadian Wildlife Service, Dartmouth NS Canada
Extended Metadata Properties
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Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2005-10-24
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-03-18