[Keyword='SOUTHERN OSCILLATION INDEX']
Global and Hemispheric Annual Temperature Variations Between 1854 and 1991, CDIAC NDP-022/R2Entry ID: CDIAC_NDP22
Abstract: Global and hemispheric annual temperature variations are presented for
1854-1991 based on both land and marine data. Land data are based on
meteorological data and fixed-position weather ship data and have been
corrected for non-climatic errors such as station shifts or instrument
changes. The marine data used are those in the COADS (Comprehensive
Ocean Atmosphere Data Set) compilation which ... extends to 1986, and data
from the Climate Analysis Center (NOAA) for 1980-1984. Both sea
surface temperatures (SST) and marine air temperatures (MAT) have been
used. Updates to 1991 were made with hemispheric sea-surface
temperature estimates produced by the U.K. Meteorological Office. For
each year, two versions of the northern/southern/global data are
included, one in which the influence of the El Nino/Southern
Oscillation (ENSO) related events is considered and another in which
it is not.
The COADS data were homogenized by correcting for non-climatic effects
and by removal of observations believed to be extreme outliers.
Homogenization was accomplished by comparison of marine and land data
in fifteen areas of overlap. MAT data were corrected using gridded
land data which were subsequently used to correct SST data.
Correction values were determined for compatibility between land and
ocean data. Once corrections were made to the marine data, these data
along with corrected land data were used to estimate global
The global and hemispheric annual variations presented here show
little trend during the nineteenth century, marked warming to 1940,
and relatively steady conditions to the mid-1970's, followed by a
rapid warming during the 1980's. The six warmest years in the global
record have occured since 1980 (1981, 1983, 1987, 1988, 1989,
1990). The year 1990 was the warmest year since comparable records
began in the middle of the 19th century.
All CDIAC numerical data packages include copies of pertinent
literature discussing the data, summaries discussing the background,
source and scope of the data, as well as applications limitations and
restrictions of the data.
More information on this data set is available from:
PLEASE NOTE. Updates to these global and hemispheric temperature
anomaly series produced by Jones et al. are available through CDIAC's
Trends Online. NDP-022 contains data only through 1991, so users are
encouraged to access the most recent data through Trends Online.
The Jones temperature anomaly data are also available as global
monthly, seasonal, and annual map images from the CDIAC anonymous FTP
site as part of the "Computer-based Atlas of Global Instrumental
Climate Data on CD-ROM and FTP" in:
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Jones, P.D., T. M. L. Wigley, and P. B. Wright
Dataset Title: Global and Hemispheric Annual Temperature Variations Between 1854 and 1991
Dataset Series Name: NDP-022
Dataset Release Date: 1994
Dataset Release Place: Oak Ridge, TN
Dataset Publisher: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
Version: R2 - Revised 1994Online Resource: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ndps/ndp022.html
Start Date: 1854-01-01Stop Date: 1991-12-31
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE > TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES
OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > TELECONNECTIONS > EL NINO SOUTHERN OSCILLATION (ENSO)
Distribution Media: FTP
Distribution Size: 13 KB
Email: p.jones at uea.ac.uk
Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia Norwich NR4 7TJ
Country: UNITED KINGDOM
Phone: (303) 497-2690
Fax: (303) 497-2699
Email: wigley at ucar.edu
NCAR/CGD P.O. Box 3000
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80307-3000
Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia
Province or State: NORWICH
Country: UNITED KINGDOM
Angell, J.K. 1990: 'Variation in global tropospheric temperature after
adjustment for the El Nino influence, 1958-89', Geophys. Res. Let.,
Vol. 17(8), pp. 1093-96.
Angell, J.K. 1991: 'Changes in tropospheric and stratospheric global
temperatures, 1958-1988', pp. 231-47. In M.E. Schlesinger (ed.),
Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of
Simulations and Observations. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam,
Jones, P.D. 1988: 'The influence of ENSO on global temperatures', Climate
Monitor, Vol. 17 (3), pp. 80-89.
Jones, P.D. and T.M.L. Wigley. 1990: 'Global Warming Trends', Scientific
American, Vol. 263, pp. 84-91.
Jones, P.D., T.M.L. Wigley, and P.B. Wright, 1986: 'Global temperature
variations between 1861 and 1984.' Nature, 322:430-434.
Jones, P.D., S.C.B. Raper, R.S. Bradley, H.F. Diaz, P.M. Kelly, and
T.M.L. Wigley, 1986: 'Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature variations:
1851-1984.' Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 25:161-179.
Jones, P.D., S.C.B. Raper, and T.M.L. Wigley, 1986: 'Southern Hemisphere
surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984.' Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 25:1213-1230.
Jones, P.D., T.M.L. Wigley, and G. Farmer. 1991: "Marine and land temperature data sets: A comparison and look at recent trends., pp. 153-172. In M.E. Schlesinger (ed.), 'Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations'. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
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Creation and Review Dates
Last DIF Revision Date: 2006-10-13