APIS - Antarctic Pack Ice Seals 1994-1999, plus historical data from the 1980's
Entry ID: APIS

[ Get Data ]
[ Update this Record ]

Summary
Abstract: APIS data were collected between 1994 and 1999. This dataset also includes some historical data collected between 1985 and 1987. Both aerial and ship-board surveys were conducted. Studies on the behaviour of Pack-ice or Crabeater Seal (Lobodon carcinophagus) in the Southern Ocean and in the Australian Sector of Antarctica were also conducted as part of this study. Satellite tracking was used to determine their movement, durations on land and at sea, dive depths and dive duration etc. The four species of Antarctic pack ice seals (crabeater, leopard, Weddell, and Ross seals) are thought to comprise up to 50% or more of the world's total biomass of seals. As long-lived, top level predators in Southern Ocean ecosystems, pack ice seals are scientifically interesting because they can assist in monitoring shifts in ecosystem structure and function, especially changes that occur in sensitive polar areas in response to global climate changes.

The APIS Program focuses on the ecological importance of pack ice seals and their interactions with physical and biotic features of their environment. This program is a collaborative, multi-disciplinary research initiative whose planning and implementation has involved scientists from more than a dozen countries. It is being developed and coordinated by the Group of Specialists on Seals of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), and represents an important contribution to SCAR's Antarctic Global Change Program. Australian researchers have undertaken an ambitious science program studying the distribution and abundance of pack ice seals in support of the APIS Program. An excellent overview of this work is provided at the Australian Antarctic Division's web site. The following paragraphs provide a brief progress report of some of that work through 1998. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Four years of developmental work have now been completed in preparation for the Australian contribution to the circumpolar survey that will take place in December 1998. Until recently the main effort has been directed towards designing and building a system for automatic data logging of line transect data by double observers. Two systems identical in concept have been designed for aerial survey and shipboard survey. The systems consist of a number of sighting guns and keypads linked to a central computer. The sightings guns are used to measure the exact time and angle of declination from the horizon of seals passing abeam of the survey platform. Also logged regularly (10 second intervals) are GPS position and altitude (aerial survey only). The aerial survey system also has an audio backup. The aerial survey system has been trialled over three seasons and the shipboard system over one season. Preliminary analysis of aerial data indicates that the essential assumption of the line transect method is badly violated, reinforcing the need for double observers. Assumption violation is likely to be less in shipboard survey, but assessment of the assumption of perfect sightability on the line is still important. User manuals have been written for both the aerial and shipboard systems. An aerial survey system is being constructed for use by BAS in the coming season. A backup manual system for aerial and shipboard survey has also been developed in the event of the automatic system failing. The aerial backup system uses the perspex sighting frame developed by the US. A database has been designed for storage and analysis of aerial and shipboard data. Importing of data is fast and easy, allowing post-survey analysis and review immediately after each day's survey effort. Aides for training observers have been developed. A video on species identification has been produced. A Powerpoint slide show has been designed to simulate aerial survey conditions and use of the automatic data logging system. Currently effort has been directed toward developing an optimal survey design. While a general survey plan is necessary, it must be flexible to deal with unpredictable ice and weather conditions. It is planned to use both the ship and two Sikorsky 76 helicopters as survey platforms. The ship will be used to survey into and out from stations, and inwards from the ice edge for approximately 60 miles. The helicopters will be used to survey southwards from the ship for distances up to 140 miles in favourable weather. Helicopters will fly in tandem, with transects 10 miles apart. Studies of crabeater seal haul-out behaviour have been conducted over the past four seasons. Twenty SLTDRs have been deployed in the breeding season (September-October). The length of deployments varies from a few days to 3 months. No transmissions have been received after mid-January, probably due to loss of instruments during the moult. Most instruments have transmitted data through the survey period of November-December. Haul-out behaviour is consistent between animals and years. However, five more instruments will be deployed in the survey season to ensure there is haul-out data concurrent with the survey effort. Some observations of penguins and whales were also made.

The accompanying dataset includes three Microsoft Access databases (stored in both Access 97 and Access 2002 formats), as well as two Microsoft Word documents, which provide additional information about these data. The fields in this dataset are: Date Time Time since previous sighting Side (of aircraft/ship) Seen by (observer) Latitude Longitude Number of adults Number of pups Species (LPD - Leopard Seal, WED - Weddell Seal, SES - Southern Elephant Seal, CBE - Crabeater Seal, UNS - Unknown Seal, ADE - Adelie Penguin, ROS - Ross Seal, EMP - Emperor Penguin, MKE - Minke Whale, ORC - Orca Whale, UNP - Unknown Penguin, UNW - Unknown Whale) SpCert - How certain the observer was of correct identification - a tick indicates certainty Distance from Observer (metres) Movement Categories - N: no data, S: stationary, MB: moved body, MBP: moved body and position, movement distance: -99 no data, negative values moved towards flight line, positive distance moved away from flight line
Distance dart gun fired from animal (in metres) Approach method (S = ship, H = helicopter, Z = unknown) Approach distance (metres) Group (S = single, P = pair, F = family (male, female and pup)) Sex Guessed Weight (kg) Drugs used Maximum Sedation Level (CS = Colin Southwell, MT = Mark Tahmidjis) Time to maximum sedation level Time to return to normal Heart rate (maximum, minimum) Respiration rate (maximum, minimum, resting) Arousal Level (1 = calm, 2 = slight, 3 = strong) Arousal Level Cat1 (1 = calm, 2 = 2+3 from above) Apnoea (maximum length of apnoea in minutes) Comments Time at depth - reading taken every 10 seconds, and whichever depth incremented upwards by 1. Time period (NT - 21:00-03:00, MN - 03:00-09:00, MD - 09:00-15:00, AF - 15:00-21:00) Seal Age - (A = Adult, SA = sub-Adult) WCId - Wildlife Computers Identification Number for SLTDR Length, width, girth (body, head, flippers) (cm) Blood, blubber, skin, hair, tooth, scat, nasal swab - sample taken, yes or no. In general, Y = Yes, N = No, ND = No Data

This work was also completed as part of ASAC projects 775 and 2263.

Related URL
Link: GET DATA
Description: Download point for the data


Link: GET SERVICE
Description: Access the data at OBIS - Go to Datasets - Antarctic OBIS - APIS


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: Public information for ASAC project 775


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: Public information for ASAC project 2263


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Access the pdf document providing further details about the project (also available in the download file)


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset


Geographic Coverage
 N: -58.93 S: -69.2256  E: 150.43  W: 48.88

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Southwell, C.
Dataset Title: APIS - Antarctic Pack Ice Seals 1994-1999, plus historical data from the 1980's
Dataset Series Name: CAASM Metadata
Dataset Release Date: 2012-07-27
Dataset Publisher: Australian Antarctic Data Centre
Online Resource: https://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/metadata_redirect.cfm?md=/AMD...


Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1984-11-11
Stop Date: 2000-01-10


Location Keywords
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >ICE EXTENT    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >PACK ICE    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >ICE EXTENT    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >PACK ICE    [Definition]
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES >MAMMALS >CARNIVORES >SEALS/SEA LIONS/WALRUSES
BIOSPHERE >AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS >COASTAL HABITAT    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS >PELAGIC HABITAT    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >SPECIES LIFE HISTORY    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >USE/FEEDING HABITATS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >POPULATION DYNAMICS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS >BIOMASS DYNAMICS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY STRUCTURE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
BIOTA
OCEANS


Platform
SHIPS    [Information]


Instrument
GPS >Global Positioning System    [Information]


Project
OBIS >OCEAN BIOGEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM    [Information]
IPY >INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR    [Information]
SCAR-MARBIN >SCAR Marine Biodiversity Information Network    [Information]
CAML >CENSUS OF ANTARCTIC MARINE LIFE    [Information]
COML >CENSUS OF MARINE LIFE    [Information]
EBA >Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic    [Information]


Access Constraints
Species distribution data are available from SCAR-MarBIN, OBIS and GBIF portals. The APIS databases can be downloaded from the provided URL and are stored in two formats, Access 97 and Access 2002.

The download also contains a number of documents providing further details about the project and the data.


Use Constraints
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided athttp://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=APIS when using these data.


Keywords
ADELIE PENGUIN
AGE
APNOEA
APPROACH
AROUSAL LEVEL
BLOOD
BLUBBER
CRABEATER SEAL
DATE
DISTANCE
DRUGS
EMPEROR PENGUIN
GIRTH
GROUP
HAIR
HEART RATE
LATITUDE
LENGTH
LEOPARD SEAL
LONGITUDE
MINKE WHALE
MOVEMENT
NASAL SWAB
NUMBER
ORCA WHALE
PACK ICE
PENGUIN
RESPIRATION RATE
ROSS SEAL
SCAT
SEALS
SEDATION LEVEL
SEX
SKIN
SOUTHERN ELEPHANT SEAL
SOUTHERN OCEAN
SPECIES
TIME
TIME AT DEPTH
TOOTH
WCID
WEDDELL SEAL
WEIGHT
WHALE
WIDTH
WILDLIFE COMPUTERS IDENTIFICATION NUMBER


Data Set Progress
COMPLETE


Originating Center
Australian Antarctic Division


Data Center
Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://data.aad.gov.au

Data Center Personnel
Name: DATA OFFICER AADC
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: metadata at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia



Distribution
Distribution_Media: HTTP
Distribution_Size: 25 MB
Distribution_Format: Access 2002/1997
Fees: free


Personnel
COLIN SOUTHWELL
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +61 3 6232 3450
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: colin.southwell at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia


DAVE J. CONNELL
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: dave.connell at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia



Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2004-04-19
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-12-02

[ Update this Record ]


Link to Web Site