[Parameters: Topic='AGRICULTURE', Term='SOILS', Variable_Level_1='CARBON', Detailed_Variable='CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION']
Long Term Slurry on Grassland Experiment, Soil Organic Matter Network, Northern IrelandEntry ID: DANI.Slurry
Abstract: This experiment was initiated in 1970 at a site that was originally
temperate deciduous woodland. It then was an estate farm until the
agricultural institute founded in 1926. The area was cut grassland,
predominantly Lolium perenne L. sward immediately before the
experiment was established.
The experiment consists of a single land-use, cut grassland (3 cuts
... per year). Treatments are as follows: 1) Fertilizer control (200 kgN,
32 kgP, 160 kgK /ha/y), 2) Unfertilized control (as 1 1970 to 1972 -
no amendments thereafter), 3) Pig slurry at 50 m3/ha/y, 4) Pig slurry
at 100 m3/ha/y, 5) Pig slurry at 200 m3/ha/y, 6) Cow slurry at 50
m3/ha/y, 7) Cow slurry at 100 m3/ha/y, 8) Cow slurry at 200 m3/ha/y.
The average climatic conditions at the experimental site are:
Minimum annual temperature: 5.5 deg C
Maximum annual temperature: 12 deg C
Mean annual rainfall: 872.5 mm
The soil is characteized as a clay loam slightly gleyed overlying
triassic sandstone and silurian shale. Classified according to soil
classification for England and Wales, Technical monograph 14 (1980).
Ap horizon 0-30cm - clay loam 7.5 YR 4/2. Bg horizon 31-50cm - clay loam
7.5 YR 68, mottles = 5 YR 5/8. Cg horizon
51cm and deeper - clay laom, 7.5 YR 4/6, Mottles = 5 YR 6/3.
The measurements made, methodology, and frequency are listed below:
a) Vegetation measurements made and frequency
Yield: 3 times per year
Total dry matter offtake: 3 times per year
Nitrogen content of offtake: 3 times per year
3 times per year for P, K, Ca, Mg (concentrations and offtakes),
Mn from 1982, Cu and Zn from 1987 and S from 1990.
b) Soil sampling
Time zero soil measurements were taken. A crude assessment of
site variability was made by dividing the area into 4 quadrants and
taking a composite soil sample from each quadrant on 6 November
1969. Sampling depth was 15cm. Each sample was analysed for pH,
extractable P and K. The data were not analyzed statisically. Each
February numerous cores are removed from each plot (core diameter =
1.5cm) with a half corer auger to a depth of 15cm. The cores are cut
into 3 5cm sections which are bulked to give a composite sample from
0-5, 5-10 and 10-50cm depth. About 500g of fresh soil is collected
from each depth in each plot. The cores are taken randomly from the
plot area. Soil is separated into layers Details of measuring depths
and soil layers: One composite sample per plot at depths 0-5, 5-10 and
c) Soil measurements made and frequency
Total carbon: Annually 1971-1977 and 1980
Method of measuring total carbon: Tinsley method (MAFF) 1986 (see
J. Appl. Ecol. (1989) 26: 597 - in reference list).
Biomass carbon: Twice in 1978 and 1986
Method of measuring biomass carbon: 1978 (6 treatments) and 1986
(all treatments) by chloroform fumigation-incubation (see
J. Appl. Ecol. (1989) 26, 597 - in reference list).
Carbon dioxide evolution: Once in 1970
Method of measuring carbon dioxide evolution: Conducted once in
February 1970 using McFayden tubes inserted into two of the three
blocks of the experiment.
Total nitrogen: Annually 1971-1977 and 1980
Method of measuring total nitrogen: Kjeldahl digestion.
1986-Kjeldahl digestion following reduction of nitrate (Kalembasa &
Biomass nitrogen: 1978 and 1986
Method of measuring biomass nitrogen: Chloroform
fumigation-incubation. See J.Appl.Ecol. (1989) 26: 597 - in reference
Other nutrients: pH in water (MAFF:ADAS method),
bicarbonate-extractable P, exchangeable K+ and Mg++. Full details in
J. Agric. Sci., Camb. (see reference list).
d) Details of the meteorological station
Nearest meteorological station to the site: Agricultural research
institute of Northern Ireland, Hillsborough. which is .04 km from the
site at coordinates 6deg.25min.20sec. West,
54deg.26min.50sec. North. The meteorological station is manual.
e) Meteorological data available and frequency
Air temperature: Daily
Soil temperature: Daily
Wind speed: Daily
Net Radiation: Daily
Sun hours: Daily
Relative humidity: Daily
Potential evapotranspiration: Daily
This information was compiled for the GCTE-SOMNET Database, Pete
Smith, Pete Falloon, David Powlson, and Jo Smith. Soil Science
Department, IACR-Rothamsted, UK.
Start Date: 1970-01-01
AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS > FERTILIZERS
AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > CROP/PLANT YIELDS
AGRICULTURE > ANIMAL SCIENCE > ANIMAL MANURE AND WASTE > COW SLURRY
AGRICULTURE > ANIMAL SCIENCE > ANIMAL MANURE AND WASTE > PIG SLURRY
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > BIOMASS CARBON
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > TOTAL CARBON
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > MAGNESIUM
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > BIOMASS NITROGEN
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > TOTAL NITROGEN
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > PHOSPHORUS
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > POTASSIUM
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL PH
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > HUMIDITY
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > WATER VAPOR
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > SURFACE WINDS
ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > RAIN
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > NET RADIATION
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > SUNSHINE
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > BIOMASS
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > CARBON
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > NITROGEN
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > NUTRIENTS
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > PHOSPHORUS
LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CARBON > BIOMASS CARBON
LAND SURFACE > SOILS > CARBON > CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION
LAND SURFACE > SOILS > MAGNESIUM
LAND SURFACE > SOILS > NITROGEN > BIOMASS NITROGEN
LAND SURFACE > SOILS > PHOSPHORUS
LAND SURFACE > SOILS > POTASSIUM
LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL PH
LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL TEMPERATURE
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > HEAVY METALS
LAND SURFACE > SOILS > HEAVY METALS
ISO Topic Category
Quality a) Details of the plots
Width of smallest plot is 3.5 m
Length of smallest plot is 8.5 m
Width of largest plot is 28 m
Length of largest plot is 51 m
Slope: 5% . Shape: Convex
Width of Discard Strip around plot: 0.5m
b) Details of replication, randomization and controls
There are at least 6 replicates in the experiment. The experiment
has a restricted randomized plot design. Randomized block with two
replicates of all treatments fully randomized within each of three
There are control plots described as follows:
Fertilizer control and unfertilized control plots present. Full
details in J. Agric. Sci., Camb. (1987) 108: 529 (see reference list).
All data analyzed by analysis of variance. No data have been omitted.
Access Constraints none
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +44 028 9025 5335
Email: drpeterchristie at aol.com
Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute Agri-Environment Branch 18a Newforge Lane
Province or State: BT9 5PX
Country: UNITED KINGDOM
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: (301) 614-6898
Email: Tyler.B.Stevens at nasa.gov
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global Change Master Directory
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Anderson, R. & Christie, P. 1992. Silage quality and the long term
application of animal slurries to grassland. Third British
Grassland Society Research Conference, pp. 117-118.
Anderson, R. & Christie, P. 1995. Effect of long-term application of
animal slurries to grassland on silage quality assessed in
laboratory silos. Journal of the Science of Food and ... Agriculture 67,
Christie, P. & Beattie, J.A.M. 1987. Significance of sample size in
measurement of soil microbial biomass by the chloroform
fumigation-incubation method. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19, 149-152.
Christie, P. & Beattie, J.A.M. 1989. Grassland soil microbial biomass
and accumulation of potentially toxic metals from
long-term slurry application. Journal of Applied Ecology 26, 597-612.
Christie, P. & Beattie, J.A.M. 1991. Direct field evaluation of
fertilizer efficiency of slurry NH4-N for cut grass using 15N.
In: Stable Isotopes in Plant Nutrition, Soil Fertility and Environmental
Studies. IAEA, Vienna, pp. 403-405.
Christie, P. & Kilpatrick, D.J. 1992. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza
infection in cut grassland following long-term slurry
application. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24, 325-330.
Christie, P. 1987. Long-term effects of slurry on grassland. In: H.G.
van der Meer, R.J. Unwin, T.A. van Dijk & G.C. Ennik
(eds): Animal Manure on Grassland and Fodder Crops. Fertilizer or Waste?
Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp. 301-304.
Christie, P. 1987. Long-term effects of slurry on grassland. Newsletter
Farming Life, 7 February, p.28
Christie, P. 1987. Some long-term effects of slurry on grassland.
Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 108, 529-541.
Christie, P. 1990. Accumulation of potentially toxic metals in grassland
from long-term slurry application. In: R. Merckx, H.
Vereecken & K. Vlassak (eds): Fertilization and the Environment. Leuven
University Press, pp. 124-130.
Christie, P. 1992. Protecting our soils from heavy metal pollution.
Newsletter Farming Life, 30 May, p. 24
Christie, P. 1993. Agronomic and ecological effects of dilute organic
manures on temperate grassland. Proceedings of the
International Workshop on Classification and Management of Arid-Desert
Soils. China Science and Technology Press,
Beijing, pp. 57-62.
Christie, P., Dickson, E.L. & Kilpatrick, D.J. 1989. Comparison between
wet and dry oxidation methods of sample
preparation for copper and zinc analysis of grassland herbage. Journal
of the Science of Food and Agriculture 48, 155-164.
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Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 1999-12-13
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-03-16