The Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) Data on CD-ROM
Entry ID: STEP87

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Summary
Abstract: This CD-ROM contains data collected from the Stratosphere-Troposphere
Exchange Project (STEP) conducted onboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft in
January and February, 1987 based in Darwin, Australia. This mission
was the last of 6 STEP missions which started with the Variability and
Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) Coop assignment in April 1984,
based in Moffett Field, California. Altogether, 4 science missions and
2 intercalibration missions comprised STEP, with the science missions
designed to investigate different aspects of stratosphere-troposphere
exchange (in mass, trace gases, and aerosols), including cloud-free
and cloud-dominated mechanisms in both the mid-latitudes and the
tropics. STEP also observed the extreme dryness of the
stratosphere. STEP was carried out under NASA and the National Oceanic
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The Darwin, Australia phase of STEP utilized 15 instruments and
accessed the world's highest, coldest tropopause as well as the
largest penetrating cumulonimbus anvils. The flights were designed to
test a dehydration mechanism proposed by Danielsen (1982), as well as
to acquire sufficient data to test and develop other hypotheses.

STEP's first mission was flown in April-May 1984 using six instruments
on the NASA U-2 aircraft. The most striking result was the discovery
in the stratosphere of highly laminated structures of ozone, water
vapor, and condensation nuclei. The U-2 wind measurements indicated
that the laminae are caused by waves that fold mixing ratio and
potential vorticity surfaces. The folding process greatly increases
the vertical gradients of the mixing ratios and the potentials for
small-scale instabilities. The latter lead to irreversible mixing;
thus a reversible wave-generated transport is rendered irreversible by
small-scale instabilities.

Related URL
Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: The Stratospheric-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) home page.


Geographic Coverage
 N: 45.0 S: -30.0  E: -120.0  W: 130.0

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1984-04-01
Stop Date: 1987-02-28


Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN
CONTINENT > AUSTRALIA/NEW ZEALAND > AUSTRALIA
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > EQUATORIAL
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > MID-LATITUDE
VERTICAL LOCATION > STRATOSPHERE
VERTICAL LOCATION > TROPOSPHERE


Science Keywords
ATMOSPHERE >AEROSOLS >AEROSOL EXTINCTION    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >AEROSOLS >CLOUD CONDENSATION NUCLEI    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >AIR QUALITY >CARBON MONOXIDE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY >TRACE GASES/TRACE SPECIES    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE >ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE >AIR TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR >HUMIDITY    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR >WATER VAPOR    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WINDS >SURFACE WINDS    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WINDS >UPPER LEVEL WINDS    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WINDS >VORTICITY    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >CLOUDS >CLOUD PROPERTIES >CLOUD FREQUENCY    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >CLOUDS >CLOUD MICROPHYSICS >CLOUD CONDENSATION NUCLEI    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >CLOUDS >CLOUD TYPES    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >SOLAR RADIATION    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY >CARBON AND HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS >CARBON DIOXIDE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY >CARBON AND HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS >CARBON MONOXIDE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY >NITROGEN COMPOUNDS >MOLECULAR NITROGEN    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY >OXYGEN COMPOUNDS >OZONE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
ENVIRONMENT


Platform
NASA ER-2 >NASA Earth Resources-2    [Information]


Instrument
HYGROMETERS    [Information]
MMS >Meteorological Measurement System    [Information]
PROFILERS    [Information]
PHOTOMETERS    [Information]
TEMPERATURE PROFILERS    [Information]
SPECTROMETERS    [Information]


Project
STEP >Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project    [Information]


Keywords
AEROSOL
CD-ROM
CLIMATOLOGY
CLOUD
CONDENSATION NUCLEI
NASA ER-2
POTENTIAL VORTICITY
STEP
UPPER AIR


Originating Center
ARC


Data Center
Earth Science Project Office, Earth Sciences Division, Ames Research Center, NASA    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.espo.nasa.gov/

Data Center Personnel
Name: STEVEN GAINES



Distribution
Distribution_Media: CD-ROM


Personnel
EDWIN F. DANIELSEN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: (415) 604-5527
Phone: FTS 464-5527
Contact Address:
NASA Ames Research Center
MS 245-3
City: Moffett Field
Province or State: CA
Postal Code: 94035
Country: USA


SCOTT A. RITZ
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: 301-614-5126
Fax: 301-614-5268
Email: Scott.A.Ritz at nasa.gov
Contact Address:
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Global Change Master Directory
City: Greenbelt
Province or State: Maryland
Postal Code: 20771
Country: USA


PHILIP B. RUSSELL
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: (415) 604-5404
Contact Address:
NASA Ames Research Center
MS 245-5
City: Moffett Field
Province or State: CA
Postal Code: 94035
Country: USA


Publications/References
The Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project, An Overview and Handbook, 1986.
STEP Office, NASA Ames Research Center MS 245-5, Moffett Field, CA 94035.

Chan, K.R., S.G. Scott, S.W. Bowen, S.E. Gaines, and E.F. Danielsen, Velocity
Fluctuations in the Stratosphere During Large-Scale Cyclogenesis, EOS Trans.
Amer. Geophys. Union, 66, 235, 1985.

Danielsen, E.F., A Dehydration Mechanism for the Stratosphere, Geophys. Res.
Lett., 9, 605-608, 1982.

Danielsen, E.F., Potential Vorticity Distributions and the Meteorological
Context for NASA's Multiaircraft Exchange Experiments, EOS Trans. Amer.
Geophys. Union, 66, 235, 1985.

Danielsen, E.F., Summary of Experimental Evidence and Implications to Theory of
Stratospheric-Tropospheric Exchange, EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 66, 236,
1985.

Kelly, K.K., Water Vapor Measurements in the Vicinity of a Tropopause Fold, EOS
Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 66, 235, 1985.

Kritz, M.A. Cosmogenic Radionuclide Measurements in the Vicinity of a
Tropopause Fold, EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 66, 236, 1985.

Russell, P.B., E.F. Danielsen, and R.A. Craig, The NASA Spring 1984
Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Experiments: Science Objectives and
Operations, EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 66, 235, 1985.

Starr, W.L. J.F. Vedder, and E.F. Danielsen, Distribution of Ozone Mixing Ratio
and Potential Vorticity in the Stratosphere During STEP Flights, EOS Trans.
Amer. Geophys. Union, 66, 235, 1985.

Wilson, J.C., W.T. Lai, and S. Smith, Correlation Between Condensation Nuclei,
Ozone, and Water Vapor Observed in the NASA STEP Experiment, EOS Trans. Amer.
Geophys. Union, 66, 235, 1985.

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 1995-06-30
Last DIF Revision Date: 2011-01-26

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