[Parameters: Topic='SOLID EARTH', Term='TECTONICS', Variable_Level_1='PLATE BOUNDARIES']
Effect of Structural Heterogeneity and Slip Distribution on Coseismic Vertical Displacement from Rupture on the Seattle FaultEntry ID: USGS_OFR_2004_1010
Abstract: Workshops in 2001 and 2002 were convened to determine critical issues in the
development of tsunami inundation maps for the Puget Sound region. The Tsunami
Inundation Mapping Effort (TIME) is conducted under the multi-agency National
Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). The Puget Sound Tsunami/Landslide
Workshop in 2001 focused on integrated tsunami research involving a wide range
of ... research studies and tsunami hazard mitigation issues. The 2002 Puget Sound
Tsunami Sources workshop (González et al., 2003) made specific recommendations
for tsunami source modeling and improving our state of knowledge for sources in
the Puget Sound region. One of the recommendations stated in González et al.
(2003) is "Develop methods to assess the sensitivity of coastal areas to
tsunami inundation, based on multiple simulations that reflect the possible
range of variations in the source parameters." Tsunami inundation models rely
heavily on the imposed initial conditions which, for an earthquake source, is
the coseismic vertical displacement field. For example, Koshimura et al. (2002)
use the geologic uplift observations (Buknam et al., 1992) to constrain the
slip distribution for the event that occurred 1100 years ago, resulting in an
average slip of 3.7 m and a magnitude of 7.6. Walsh et al. (2003) develop a
tsunami inundation map for Elliot Bay based on a M 7.3 earthquake and the
geologic uplift observations from the 1100 y.b.p. event as in Koshimura et al.
(2002), though they use a constant fault dip of 60° rather than different dips
for deep and shallow segments. The objective of this report is to examine how
coseismic vertical displacement from a smaller M 6.5 Seattle Fault earthquake
(as in Hartzell et al., 2002) is affected by structural heterogeneity and
different slip distribution patterns.
The three-dimensional crustal structure of the Puget Sound region has recently
been defined using shallow seismic reflection data (Pratt et al., 1997; Johnson
et al., 1999) and reflection and wide-angle recordings from the large-scale
SHIPS experiments (e.g., Brocher et al., 2001; ten Brink et al., 2002). The
presence of a deep sedimentary basin (Seattle Basin) adjacent to the Seattle
Fault has led to the question of whether structural heterogeneity has an effect
on our estimate of vertical displacement for earthquake scenarios in the
region. We use a three-dimensional elastic finite-element model (Yoshioka et
al., 1989) to calculate vertical displacements from rupture on a two-segment
(deep and shallow) Seattle fault using a heterogeneous crustal structure.
Similar studies by Geist and Yoshioka (1996) and Masterlark et al. (2001) used
three-dimensional, finite-element models (FEM) to study the effect of
structural heterogeneity on coseismic displacement fields. Results for the
Puget Sound study are compared to calculations using a homogeneous structure as
assumed with conventional elastic dislocation solutions. Effects of slip
distribution patterns on vertical displacement is computed using the stochastic
source model adopted for tsunami studies by Geist (2002). Finally, we examine
an alternate model for shallow faulting proposed by ten Brink et al. (2002) and
Brocher et al. (submitted) and its effect on the vertical displacement field.
[Summary provided by the USGS.]
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Eric L. Geist and Shoichi Yoshioka
Dataset Title: Effect of Structural Heterogeneity and Slip Distribution on Coseismic Vertical Displacement from Rupture on the Seattle Fault
Dataset Series Name: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
Dataset Release Date: 2004
Dataset Release Place: California
Dataset Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Data Presentation Form: maps, reportsOnline Resource: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1010/
HUMAN DIMENSIONS > NATURAL HAZARDS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE
HUMAN DIMENSIONS > NATURAL HAZARDS > FLOODS > TSUNAMI
LAND SURFACE > GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES > COASTAL PROCESSES
LAND SURFACE > GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES > TECTONIC PROCESSES
OCEANS > OCEAN WAVES > TSUNAMIS
SOLID EARTH > GRAVITY/GRAVITATIONAL FIELD > CRUSTAL MOTION > CRUSTAL DISPLACEMENT
SOLID EARTH > ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS > BEDROCK LITHOLOGY
SOLID EARTH > ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS > IGNEOUS ROCKS
SOLID EARTH > ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS > METAMORPHIC ROCKS
SOLID EARTH > ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS > MINERALS
SOLID EARTH > ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS > SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
SOLID EARTH > ROCKS/MINERALS/CRYSTALS > SEDIMENTS
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE/INTENSITY
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE OCCURRENCES
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE PREDICTIONS
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > PLATE TECTONICS > FAULT MOVEMENT > FAULT RISING
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > PLATE TECTONICS > FAULT MOVEMENT > FAULT DIPPING
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > PLATE TECTONICS > FAULT MOVEMENT > VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > PLATE TECTONICS > FOLDS
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > PLATE TECTONICS > STRAIN
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > PLATE TECTONICS > STRESS
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > PLATE TECTONICS
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > PLATE TECTONICS > PLATE BOUNDARIES
Use Constraints Use of any trade, firm or product name is for descriptive purposes only and
does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: Online
Fees: No fees
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Email: cdonlin at usgs.gov
U.S. Geological Survey Geology Division 345 Middlefield Road
City: Menlo Park
Province or State: California
Postal Code: 94025
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Email: egeist at usgs.gov
U.S. Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Road
City: Menlo Park
Province or State: California
Postal Code: 94025
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Email: yoshioka at geo.kyushu-u.ac.jp
Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences Faculty of Science Kyushu University
Postal Code: 812-8581
Aki, K., 1967, Scaling law of seismic spectrum: Journal of Geophysical
Research, v. 72, p. 1212-1231.
Beer, G., and J. L. Meek, 1981, 'Infinite domain' elements: International
Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, v. 17, p. 43-52.
Boore, D. M., 1996, SMSIM--Fortran program for simulating ground motions from earthquakes: Version 1.0, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-80-A, 73 pp.
Brocher, T. M., et al., 2001, Upper crustal structure in Puget Lowland,
Washington: Results from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound: J. Geophys. Res., vol.106, p.13,541-13,564.
Brocher, T. M., R. J.Blakely,and R.E.Wells, submitted, Interpretation of the Seattle uplift, Washington, as a passive roof duplex: Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.
Bucknam, R. C., E. Hemphill-Haley, and E. B. Leopold, 1992, Abrupt uplift
within the past 1700 years at southern Puget Sound, Washington: Science, v.
258, p. 1611-1613.
Geist, E. L., 1999, Local tsunamis and earthquake source parameters: Advances in Geophysics, v. 39, p. 117-209.
Geist, E. L., 2002, Complex earthquake rupture and local tsunamis: J. Geophys. Res., v. 107, no. B5, 16 pp.
Geist, E. L., and Yoshioka, S., 1996, Source parameters controlling the
generation and propagation of potential local tsunamis along the Cascadia
margin: Natural Hazards, v. 13, p. 151-177.
González, F., B. Sherrod, B. Atwater, A. Frankel, S. Palmer, M. Holmes, B.
Karlin, B. Jaffe, V. Titov, H. Mofjeld, and A. Venturato, 2003, 2002 Puget
Sound Tsunami Sources Workshop Report. A contribution to the Inundation Mapping Project of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, NOAA OAR Special Report, 34 pp.
Hartzell, S., A. Leeds, A. Frankel, R. A. Williams, J. Odum, W. Stephenson, and W. Silva, 2002, Simulation of broadband ground motion including nonlinear soil effects for a magnitude 6.5 earthquake on the Seattle Fault, Seattle, Washington: Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., v. 92, p. 831-853.
Hashimoto, M., 1982, Numerical modeling of the three-dimensional stress field in southwestern Japan: Tectonophysics, v. 84, p. 247-266.
Herrero, A., and Bernard, P., 1994, A kinematic self-similar rupture process for earthquakes: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 84, p. 1216-1228.
Johnson, S. Y., Dadisman, S. V., Childs, J. R., and Stanley, W. D., 1999,
Active tectonics of the Seattle fault and central Puget Sound,
Washington--Implications for earthquake hazards: Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 111, p. 1042-1053.
Koshimura, S., Mofjeld, H. O., González, F.I., Moore, A. L., 2002, Modeling the 1100 bp paleotsunami in Puget Sound, Washington: Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 29, p.
9-1 - 9-4.
Ma, X. Q., and N. J. Kusznir, 1994, Effects of rigidity layering, gravity, and stress relaxation on 3-D subsurface fault displacement fields: Geophys. J. Int., v. 118, p. 201-220.
Masterlark, T., C. DeMets, H. F. Wang, O. Sánchez, and J. Stock, 2001,
Homgeneous vs heterogeneous subduction zone models: Coseismic and postseismic deformation: Geophys. Res. Lett., v. 28, p. 4047-4050.
Okada, Y., 1985, Surface deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a
half-space: Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., v. 75, p. 1135-1154.
Pratt, T. L., S. Johnson, C. Potter, W. Stephenson, and C. Finn, 1997, Seismic reflection images beneath Puget Sound, western Washington State: The Puget Lowland thrust sheet hypothesis: J. Geophys. Res., v. 102, p. 27,469-27,489.
Savage, J. C., 1998, Displacement field for an edge dislocation in a layered half-space: J. Geophys. Res., v. 103, p. 2439-2446.
ten Brink, U. S., P. C. Molzer, M. A. Fisher, R. J. Blakely, R. C. Bucknam, T. Parsons, R. S. Crosson, and K. C. Creager, 2002, Subsurface geometry and evolution of the Seattle Fault Zone and the Seattle Basin, Washington: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 92, 1737-1753.
Walsh, T. J., V. V. Titov , A. J. Venturato , H. O. Mofjeld , and F. I.
Gonzalez, 2003, Tsunami Hazard Map of the Elliott Bay Area, Seattle,Washington: Modeled Tsunami Inundation from a Seattle Fault Earthquake: Washington Division Of Geology and Earth Resources, Open File Report 2003-14.
Yoshioka, S., M. Hashimoto, and K. Hirahara, 1989, Displacement fields due to the 1946 Nankaido earthquake in a laterally inhomogeneous structure with the subducting Philippine Sea plate--a three-dimensional finite element approach: Tectonophys., v. 159, p. 121-136.
Extended Metadata Properties
(Click to view more)
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2004-08-27
Last DIF Revision Date: 2016-11-18