State of the CryosphereEntry ID: NSIDC-0090
Abstract: The Cryospheric regions, or regions where water is found in solid
form, are among the most sensitive to temperature change. Average
temperatures in snow and ice-covered areas typically remain below zero
Celsius much of the year. Unlike other substances found on Earth, ice
and snow exist relatively close to their melting point and frequently
change phase from solid to ... liquid and back again. Consequently,
consistent and prolonged warming trends should result in observable
changes to the Earth's cryosphere.
State of the Cryosphere provides readers with a look at climate
variability with regard to snow cover, sea ice, glaciers and the
related parameter sea level are discussed. In all cases scientists
attempt to monitor both the areal extent and mass of these snow and
ice bodies. Certainly areal extent is easier to determine than
mass. Various forms of remote sensing, from both aircraft and
satellite, allows scientists to look down on surfaces at varying
spatial scales and over time to determine if the snow or ice covered
area is expanding or contracting. Long-term monitoring includes
looking at the areal extent of snow cover and sea ice as well as
changes in area and mass of mountain glaciers. In all cases,
regardless of parameter or measurement method, the amount of snow and
ice have been decreasing over the past several decades.
(Click for Interactive Map)
Data Set Citation
Dataset Title: State of the Cryosphere
Dataset Release Date: January 2000
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, CO U.S.A.
Dataset Publisher: National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC)Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/sotc/
Start Date: 1900-01-01Stop Date: 2000-12-31
CRYOSPHERE > SEA ICE > ICE EXTENT
CRYOSPHERE > SEA ICE > ICE GROWTH/MELT
CRYOSPHERE > SEA ICE > SEA ICE CONCENTRATION
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > ALBEDO
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > FREEZE/THAW
CRYOSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIERS
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW COVER
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW ENERGY BALANCE
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW/ICE TEMPERATURE
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > ALBEDO
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > FREEZE/THAW
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIERS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW COVER
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW ENERGY BALANCE
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW/ICE TEMPERATURE
OCEANS > COASTAL PROCESSES > SEA LEVEL RISE
OCEANS > SEA ICE > ICE EXTENT
OCEANS > SEA ICE > ICE GROWTH/MELT
OCEANS > SEA ICE > SEA ICE CONCENTRATION
CRYOSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIER MASS BALANCE/ICE SHEET MASS BALANCE
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIER MASS BALANCE/ICE SHEET MASS BALANCE
Access Constraints None
Use Constraints None
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: electronic
Distribution Format: HTML
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
National Snow and Ice Data Center CIRES, 449 UCB University of Colorado
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Temperature Variation References National Research Council
(NRC). 2000. Reconciling observations of global temperature
change. Panel on Reconciling Temperature Observations, Climate
Research Committee, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,
Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources. Washington
D.C.:National Academy Press.
Trenberth, K.E. ... 1997. Global warming: It's happening. natural SCIENCE
Dyurgerov, M.B. and M.F. Meier. 1997a. Mass balance of mountain and
subpolar glaciers: a new global assessment for 1961-1990. Arctic and
Alpine Research. 29(4):379-91.
Dyurgerov, M.B. and M.F. Meier. 1997b. Year-to-year fluctuation of
global mass balance of small glaciers and their contribution to sea
level changes. Arctic and Alpine Research. 29(4):392-401.
W. Haeberli, M. Hoelzle, and S. Suter, eds. 1998. Into the second
century of world glacier monitoring - prospects and strategies. In
Studies and Reports in Hydrology - A Contribution to the IHP and the
GEMS, 56. World Glacier Monitoring Service.
Sea Ice References:
Cavalieri, D.J., P. Gloersen, C.L. Parkinson, J.C. Comiso, and
H.J. Zwally. 1997. Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice
changes. Science. 278:1104-06.
Maslanik, J.A., M.C. Serreze and R.G. Barry. 1996. Recent decreases in
Arctic summer ice cover and linkages to atmospheric circulation
anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23:1677-80.
Maslanik, J.A., M.C. Serreze and T. Agnew. 1999. On the record
reduction in 1998 western Arctic sea-ice
cover. J. Geophys. Res. 26(13):1905-08.
Parkinson, C.L. 1995. Recent sea-ice advances in Baffin Bay/Davis
Strait and retreats in the Bellingshausen Sea. Annals of
Rothrock, D.A., Y. Yu and G.A. Maykut. 1999. Thinning of the Arctic
sea-ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters. 26(23):3469-72.
Vinnikov, K.Y., A. Robock, R.J. Stouffer, J.E. Walsh, C.L. Parkinson,
D.J. Cavalieri, J.F.B. Mitchell, D. Garrett,
V.F. Zakharov. 1999. Global warming and Northern Hemisphere sea ice
extent. Science. 286:1934-37.
Sea Level References:
Meier, M.F. and D.B. Bahr. 1996. Counting glaciers: use of scaling
methods to estimate the number and size distribution of the glaciers
of the world. pp. 89-94 in Glaciers, Ice Sheets, and Volcanoes: A
Tribute to Mark F. Meier, ed. S. C. Colbeck. U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL).
Armstrong, R.L. and M.J. Brodzik. 1999. A twenty year record of global
snow cover fluctuations derived from passive microwave remote sensing
data. 5th Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography. American
Meteorological Society. Dallas, TX. pp. 113-17.
Groisman, P. Ya, T.R. Karl, and R.W. Knight. 1994. Observed impact of
snow cover on the heat balance and the rise of continental spring
temperatures. Science. 263:198-200.
Robinson. D.A. 1993. Recent trends in Northern Hemisphere snow
cover. Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies. American
Meteorological Society. Anaheim, CA. pp. 329-34.
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2000-01-20
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-04-20