Analysis of the community structure of subtidal reefs at Cape Armitage (species composition of invertebrates and fish, sediment spicule mat depth, sediment type, sedimentation rates and tissue sampling for analysis)Entry ID: K054_1987_1989_NZ_1
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Abstract: A dive site was selected at Cape Armitage to conduct a marine benthos survey. The water was approximately 25m deep and the bottom was found to be rocky and inhabited by sponges. Other sites were dived to carry out a survey and assess the area for further work. These sites included Pram Point, Turtle Rocks, the reef drop off adjacent to McMurdo Station and the reverse osmosis hole at Scott Base. ... To survey the marine benthos, two 10m x 10m squares were marked on the sea floor. Within each site, 6 random 1square meter quadrats were surveyed. All organisms within each quadrat were counted and measured. To survey larger, less abundant species, five strip transects were monitored within each site. Each transect was 1m x 10m in area and all large invertebrate species were counted and measured. Their positions on the transect was plotted to allow a future survey aimed at assessing the longevity of large sponges. Sediment spicule mat depth and consistency was also recorded. Sediment type and depth was measured. Three replicate sediment samples were taken to characterize the substrate and rates of sedimentation were determined by installing sediment traps. The site was resurveyed and photographed a year later, with the identity and number of all the species found within each quadrat recorded. Each species sizes were re-measured. Fish counts were also made within both sites. Three 10m x 2m corridors were surveyed within each site and all fish were counted and identified. During both seasons, samples of each species were collected for biochemical investigations. In the first season, 35 benthic species were collected for bioassay of antiviral/antitumour activity. Most of these were benthic encrusting invertebrates. In the second season, 150g of each species found on the reef was collected to test for heterogeneity in each species biochemistry. A 50g sample of all but the rarest species was taken. A small portion was used as a voucher specimen and the remainder frozen. Using this method, little mortality was induced as the basal portion together with at least two thirds of erect portions of each individual was left intact. (Most benthic invertebrates heal quickly and the excised tissue is rapidly replaced). Each species was photographed in situ and again in the laboratory. Colour, texture, consistency, etc was recorded immediately and notes were taken relating to the specimen's ecology and physiology.
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Start Date: 1987-11-05Stop Date: 1987-11-18
Start Date: 1988-10-14Stop Date: 1988-11-24
Quality Building upon a methodology pioneered by Sachs et al. (2003), a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) value (US$, 2000, purchase power parity adjusted (PPP)) is estimated for each grid cell. The process begins by determining the contribution of each subnational unit to national GDP using data of varied origin. The ratio of the subnational production estimate to the national GDP is the contribution ratio. ... To ensure uniformity, these contribution ratios are utilized with published World Bank estimates of GDP. Once a standardized value of subnational GDP has been calculated, this value is further subdivided by the total population within the subnational unit as determined using Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) data. This subnational, per-person GDP value is multiplied by the population density per grid cell to estimate the GDP value on a per grid cell basis.
Regional loss rates were derived from the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) records, providing estimates of the hazard's impact. Combining the impact data with the frequency and distribution data of the Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-peak ground acceleration dataset and the baseline productivity data provided by the spatially allocated GDP estimates resulted in crude estimates of the GDP at risk. In turn, these estimates are transformed into proportions of the original GDP estimates of the grid cells on a per grid cell basis. In order to more accurately reflect the confidence surrounding the proportionalities, they are further classified into deciles, 10 classes of approximately an equal number of grid cells.
Note that areas of &No Data& are not necessarily without risk from hazards, but may rather be an artifact of a mask that excluded from analysis those areas with a population density below 5 persons per square kilometer and without significant agriculture.
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and Risk Research (CHRR), and International Bank for Reconstruction and
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acknowledge CHRR, CIESIN, and The World Bank as the source used in the creation
of any reports, publications, new datasets, derived products, or services
resulting from the use of this dataset. CHRR, CIESIN, and The World Bank
request reprints of any publications and notification of any redistribution
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: HTTP
Distribution Size: ~6 MB compressed (V005)
Distribution Format: HDF-EOS
Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) publications written by the MODIS Science Team: [available online at http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/sci_team/pubs/]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2000, MODIS data products catalog (EOS AM platform): [Greenbelt, Maryland], Goddard Space Flight Center, http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/dataprod/index.php.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2000, EOS Reference Handbook, a Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System: Greenbelt, Maryland, Goddard Space Flight Center, 256 p. [available online in pdf format at http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/ftp_docs/data_products_vol2.pdf].
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Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2007-03-24
Last DIF Revision Date: 2013-01-31