China County Data Collection, Geography and PopulationEntry ID: EOSWEBSTER_China_County_Data_4
Abstract: The Geography and Population dataset contains three variables which
describe county level demographics and geographic references. These
variables include: 1) County area (hectares), 2) Lat. and Long. of
county centroid, and 3) County population.
See the references for the sources of these data.
China County Data collection contains seven datasets which were
compiled in the early 1990s for use as ... inputs to the DNDC
(Denitrification-Decomposition) model at UNH. DNDC is a computer
simulation model for predicting carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)
biogeochemistry in agricultural ecosystems. The datasets were compiled
from multiple Chinese sources and all are at the county scale for
1990. The datasets which comprise this collection are listed below.
1) Agricultural Management
4) Geography and Population
5) Land Use
7) Soil Properties
(Click for Interactive Map)
This data set description is a member of a collection. The collection is described in
Start Date: 1990-01-01Stop Date: 1990-12-31
Quality The values provided in temporal and spatial coverage are approximate only.
Taken from the 2008-2009 Progress Report:
1) Samples were collected at Casey during the 08/09 season by J. Stark (Complete)
a) effluent (2 x 50-100 ml) from waste water treatment plant
b) Ice samples (50-100g) in a transect across the sewage plume of waste water outlet
... c) Water samples (2 s 50 ml) from five points close to sewage outfall in Shannon Bay and five from O'Briens bay
d) Sediment grab samples from Shannon Bay and five from O'Briens bay
2) Samples collected from Casey in 08/09 season are in storage in Kingston and will be collected by Michelle Power and transported to Macquarie University for analyses (May 2009)
1) Preliminary screening using common PCR method of core samples from 07/08 season for Antibiotic resistance genes (completed).
2) Positives from core samples undergoing characterisation by sequencing of Gene cassettes with six samples completed by October 2009.
3) Three further tests for antibiotic resistance genes will be performed on core sample DNA (completion July 2009)
4) Screening by T-RFLP to determine microbial diversity at variable depths has begun on core samples. This component will be completed and submitted for publication by September 2009.
5) Screening for antibiotic resistance cassettes and analysis of gene cassettes from sediment, ice water and sewage collected from 08/09 season will begin in July 09 and completed by June 2010 (Honours Project)
6) Culture of E.coli from sediment, sewage and ice samples will begin on collection of samples from Hobart (May 2009)
7) Screening of marine invertebrates will begin in late 2009 using data from other samples to design optimal experimental approach.
Taken from the 2009-2010 Progress Report:
Variations to work plan or objectives:
No changes have been made, although we have a significantly greater number of samples obtained from the summer 09/10 than anticipated in original grant application. This may require prioritising of goals based on achieving goals 1, 3 and 4 as outlined above. The minimal identification of integrons in Casey samples may lead us to readdress goal 3 but this will be dependent on outcomes of analysis of E. coli and sediments from Davis ie if low diversity / occurrence of integrons in enviroment can we modify goal 3 in line with these outcomes.
Fieldwork undertaken at Davis V3-V4 2010. An Escherichia coli library containing 463 E. coli isolates preserved in glycerol and stored at minus 80oC was established. The E. coli were obtained from samples described above, and from water column samples provided by Jim Smith. The library will be used to determine phenotypes and genotypes of E. coli in the Antarctic environment and relationship to those in sewage. This component represents milestones for end of project year two although we have obtained an excess of some 363 cultures that were not anticipated in original grant. Additional funding will need to be sort to complete analysis of additional samples. For the 100 samples expected genotyping and virulence factor analysis will be completed by September 2010.
Sample library: Sediment cores from 24 dive sites and beach area at Davis, faecal material from seals and penguins and intestinal contents from Abatus have been allocated barcodes and returned to Australia for subsequent genetic testing. These samples require DNA extraction, diversity determination and screening for class I integrons that will be completed by October 2010. Characterisation of resulting gene cassettes will be performed in following months.
All samples are currently in Hobart and details of customs clearance or locations have not been provided to Investigator to date.
LABORATORY ANALYSIS: MACQUARIE UNIVERSITY
Sediment cores (77) grab sediments (4) and ice (10) were screened for integrons. Of this 15 samples went onto further analysis for gene cassette arrays, cloning and sequencing. The sediment cores were also tested for diversity using 16S rDNA ribotyping. The general trend was that diversity decreased with and community structure altered with depth. Communities in ice samples covering sewage plume and top layer sediments were similar suggesting that organisms were making their way into bay and settling into sediments. The data collected and sequencing is still undergoing analysis with final results for testing of Casey sample anticipated by July 2010.
LABORATORY ANALYSIS: DAVIS 2010
Outfall testing: four samples from the outfall were tested for coliforms using Colilert quantitray system. Bacteria counts for each sample were greater than 2.6 x 106 E. coli / 100ml of sewage outfall water.
Sediments testing: Replicate core samples from 2 plots within 24 sites were provided by dive team. Samples were tested for E. coli using Colilert quantitray system. Sediments from seven sites tested positive for coliforms / E. coli. Counts ranged between 1 and 8 E. coli cells / ~ 10g sediment. The sites that tested positive were STP5, STP6, STP10a, STP10b, STP10c, STP10d and STP13a.
Marine invertebrates testing: Intestinal contents from 30 Abatus were screened for E. coli using Colilert quantitray system. Samples were obtained from STP4, STP5, STP10, STP13a, Old wallow, outfall and STP2. These samples were provided by the dive team and Jake Van Ooestrom. The results for coliform testing of Abatus were hampered by false positives, which has been attributed to two factors 1) chitin present in copepods may be causing conversion of enzyme in media or 2) a bacteria endemic to Antarctic waters may be utilizing enzyme. Our aim is to investigate this further but preliminary findings support the chitan suggestion. Copepods were incubated with colilert media for 24 hours, this resulted in conversion of media to the blue colour used to indicate E. coli.
Faecal sample testing: Faecal samples were obtained from a range of vertebrate wildlife species to enable comparison of E. coli phenotypes from sewage outfall, sediments and the water column. Samples were obtained from elephant seals, weddell seals and Adelie penguins at a range of sites. In total 57 faecal samples were tested from the above species. Isolates have been added to library and samples returned to Australia for further testing (see below).
Access Constraints These data are not yet publicly available.
Use Constraints This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License
Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=ASAC_2936 when using these data.
Data Set Progress
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +61 2 9850 6974
Email: mpower at els.mq.edu.au
Province or State: New South Wales
Postal Code: 2109
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: dave.connell at aad.gov.au
Australian Antarctic Division 203 Channel Highway
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2009-04-27
Last DIF Revision Date: 2012-02-07