The whole Hapex-Sahel experience data
Entry ID: HAPEX-DATA

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Summary
Abstract: HAPEX-Sahel: the Hydrology-Atmosphere Pilot Experiment in the Sahel,
1990-1992.

(The following text is an extract of : Geographical, biological and
remote sensing aspects of the Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment
in the Sahel (HAPEX SAHEL) by S.D. Prince, Y.H. Kerr, J.-P. Goutorbe,
T. Lebel, A. Tinga, J. Brouwer, A.J. Dolman, E.T. Engman,
J.H.C. Gash, M. Hoepffner, P. Kabat, B. Monteny, F. Said, P. Sellers,
J. Wallace, to be published in RSE)

HAPEX-Sahel (Hydrological and Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in the
Sahel) is an international land-surface-atmosphere observation program
that was undertaken in western Niger, in the west African Sahel
region. The overall aims were to improve our understanding of the role
of the Sahel on the general circulation, in particular the effects of
the large interannual fluctuations of land surface conditions in this
region and, in turn, to develop ideas about how the general
circulation is related to the persistent droughts that have affected
the Sahel during the last 25 years. The field program obtained
measurements of atmospheric, surface and certain sub-surface processes
in a 1deg x1deg area that incorporates examples of many of the major
land surface types found throughout the Sahel. An important
consideration was that the data must to be applicable to the scales of
current general circulation models (GCM).

In order to obtain data for this large area, an extensive measurement
program was undertaken including field, aircraft, and satellite remote
sensing measurements, mainly between mid1990 and late1992. An
intensive operations period was undertaken for 8 weeks from mid to
late growing season of 1992. HAPEX- Sahel was initiated in response
to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Global Energy and Water
Cycles Experiment (GEWEX) which aims to determine the fluxes of water
and energy globally in order to quantify the energetic processes of
the Earth's climate system and the forcing functions on the ocean,
land, ice and vegetation. GEWEX recognizes the need for more realistic
measurements of major global environments, especially critical areas
that are thought to have strong influences on the general circulation.

It is possible to have on-line information: 'http://www.ird.fr/hapex/'

Geographic Coverage
 N: 14.0 S: 13.0  E: 3.0  W: 2.0

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1992-06-01
Stop Date: 1992-12-31


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > AFRICA > WESTERN AFRICA > NIGER
CONTINENT > AFRICA > Niger
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > SAHEL


Science Keywords
ATMOSPHERE >AEROSOLS >AEROSOL EXTINCTION    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >AEROSOLS >AEROSOL RADIANCE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY >TRACE GASES/TRACE SPECIES    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA >DROUGHT    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE >ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE >AIR TEMPERATURE >WET BULB TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE >POTENTIAL TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR >EVAPORATION    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR >EVAPOTRANSPIRATION    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR >HUMIDITY    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR >WATER VAPOR >HUMIDITY    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WINDS >SURFACE WINDS    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >CLOUDS >CLOUD PROPERTIES >CLOUD FREQUENCY    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >PRECIPITATION >PRECIPITATION AMOUNT    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >PRECIPITATION >RAIN    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >ABSORPTION    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >ALBEDO    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >EMISSIVITY    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >HEAT FLUX >LATENT HEAT FLUX    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >INCOMING SOLAR RADIATION    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >LONGWAVE RADIATION    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >OPTICAL DEPTH/THICKNESS    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >REFLECTANCE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >SOLAR IRRADIANCE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >SOLAR RADIATION >NET RADIATION    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >TRANSMITTANCE    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS >AGRICULTURAL LANDS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS >DESERTS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS >GRASSLANDS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS >SAVANNAS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS >SHRUBLAND/SCRUB    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >BIOMASS >HERB BIOMASS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >LEAF CHARACTERISTICS >LEAF AREA INDEX    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >PLANT CHARACTERISTICS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >VEGETATION COVER >NDVI    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >VEGETATION INDEX    [Definition]
HUMAN DIMENSIONS >INFRASTRUCTURE >CULTURAL FEATURES    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >GROUND WATER >GROUND WATER DISCHARGE/FLOW    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >GROUND WATER >GROUNDWATER CHEMISTRY    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >GROUND WATER >INFILTRATION    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >SURFACE WATER >RUNOFF    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >LAND TEMPERATURE >LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL DEPTH    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL HEAT BUDGET    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL STRUCTURE    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SURFACE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES >EMISSIVITY    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SURFACE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES >REFLECTANCE >BIDIRECTIONAL REFLECTANCE    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SURFACE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES >REFLECTANCE    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SURFACE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES >THERMAL PROPERTIES    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >TOPOGRAPHY >SURFACE ROUGHNESS    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >INFRARED WAVELENGTHS >BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >INFRARED WAVELENGTHS >INFRARED FLUX    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >INFRARED WAVELENGTHS >INFRARED IMAGERY    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >INFRARED WAVELENGTHS >THERMAL INFRARED    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS >SENSOR COUNTS    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS >VISIBLE FLUX    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS >VISIBLE IMAGERY    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY >CARBON AND HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS >CARBON DIOXIDE >CO2 FLUX    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS >BIOMASS DYNAMICS    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
FARMING
BIOTA


Platform
AIRCRAFT    [Information]
GROUND STATIONS    [Information]
ERS-1 >European Remote Sensing Satellite-1    [Information]
NOAA-11 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-11    [Information]
NOAA-12 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-12    [Information]
SPOT-1 >Systeme Probatoire Pour l'Observation de la Terre-1    [Information]
SPOT-2 >Systeme Probatoire Pour l'Observation de la Terre-2    [Information]


Instrument
SAR >Synthetic Aperture Radar    [Information]
AMI >Active Microwave Instrument    [Information]
AVHRR >Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer    [Information]
NS-001 TMS >NS-001 Thematic Mapper Simulator    [Information]
POLDER-1 >Polarization/Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance-1    [Information]
PORTOS >Radiometer Hyper-frequence Multi-frequence
TIMS >Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner    [Information]


Project
WCRP >World Climate Research Program    [Information]


Keywords
AIRCRAFT CENTRE AVIATION METEROLOGIQUE
ARAT
AVION DE RECHERCHE ATMOSPHERIQUE ET DE TELEDETECTION
BIOSPHERE
CD-ROM
HAPEX
IDN_NODE ESRIN/C
MERLIN
SAHEL


Originating Center
CESBIO


Data Center
Hapex Sahel Information System, L'Institut de Recherche pour Le developpement    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.ird.fr/hapex/

Data Center Personnel
Name: HAPEX-SAHEL CONTACT
Phone: +33 (0)5.61.55.85.00
Fax: +33 (0)5.61.55.85.01
Email: Hapex-web at cesbio.cnes.fr
Contact Address:
HAPEX SAHEL Information System
c/o CESBIO - BP 2801
31401 TOULOUSE CEDEX 4
Postal Code: 31401
Country: FRANCE



Distribution
Distribution_Media: CD-ROM

Distribution_Media: Online (HTTP)


Personnel
YANN, DR. KERR
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +33 5 61 55 85 22
Fax: +33 5 61 55 85 00
Email: Yann.Kerr at cesbio.cnes.fr
Contact Address:
CESBIO
bpi 2801
18 Avenue E. Belin
TOULOUSE CEDEX 4
Postal Code: 31401
Country: FRANCE


Publications/References
Andre, J.-C., Goutorbe, J.-P., Perrier, A., Becker, F.,
Bessemoulin, P., Bougeault, P., Brunet, Y., Brutsaert, W., Carlson,
T., Cuenca, R., Gash, J., Hildebrand, P., Lagouarde, P., Lloyd, C.,
Mahrt, L., Mascart, P., Mazaudier, C., Noilhan, J., Ottl, C.,
Payen, M., Phulpin, T., Stull, R., Shuttleworth, J., Schmugge, T.,
Taconet, O., Tarrieu, C., Thepenier, R.-M., Valencogne, C.,
Vidal-Madjar, D., and Weill, A., 1988. Evaporation over land
surfaces: first results from HAPEX-MOBILHY special observing
period. Annals Geophysicae, 6, 477-492.

Bolle, H.J., Andre, J.-C., Arrue, J.L., Barth, H.K., Bessemoulin,
P., Brasa, A., de Bruin, H.A.R., Dugdale, G., Engman, E.T., Evans,
D.L., Fantechi, R., Fiedler, F., van de Griend, A., Imeson, A.C.,
Jochum, A., Kabat, P., Kratzsch, T., Lagouarde, J.P., Langer, I.,
Llamas, R., Lopes-Baeza, E., Meli Miralles, J., Muniosguren, L.S.,
Nerry, F., Noilhan, J., Oliver, H.R., Roth, R., Sanchez Diaz, J.,
de Santa Alalla, M., Shuttleworth, W.J., Sogaard, H., Stricker, H.,
Thornes, J., Vauclin, M., and Wickland, D., 1993. European Field
Experiment in a Desertification threatened Area. Annals Geophysicae
(in press).

Goutorbe, J.P., Lebel, T., Tinga, A., Dolman, H., Engman, E.T.,
Gash, J.G.C., Kabat, P., Kerr, Y.H., Monteny, B., Prince, S.D.,
Sellers, P., Wallace, J., and Hoepffner, M., August
1992. Experiment Plan for HAPEX- Sahel. ORSTOM, Montpellier.

Goutorbe, J.P., Lebel, T., Tinga, A., Bessemoulin, P., Brouwer, J.,
Dolman, H., Engman, E.T., Gash, J.G.C., Hoepffner, M., Kabat, P.,
Kerr, Y.H., Monteny, B., Prince, S.D., Said, F., Sellers, P., and
Wallace, J., 1992. HAPEX-SAHEL: A large scale study of land
atmosphere interactions in the semi-arid tropics. Submitted to
Annales Geophysicae. Justice, C.O., 1986, (Editor). Special Iss ue
of the International Journal of Remote Sensing, 7, 1383-1622.

Lebel, T., Sauvageot, H., Hoepffner, M., Desbois,M., Guillot, B.,
and Hebert, P., 1992. Rainfall estimation in the Sahel: the
EPSAT-NIGER experiment. Hydrological Sciences, 37, 201-215.

Sellers, P.J., H all, F.G., Asrar, G., Strebel, D.E., and Murphy,
R.E., 1988, The first ISLSCP field experiment (FIFE). Bulletin of
the American Meteorological Society, 69, 22-27.

Sivakumar, M.V.K., 1989. Agroclimatic aspects of rainfed
agriculture in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone. In Soil, Crop and Water
Management in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone. Proceedings of an
International Workshop 11-16 January 1987, ICRISAT Sahelian Center,
Niamey, Niger, edited by C. Renard, R.J. Van Den Beldt, and
J.F. Parr. pp17-38.

Creation and Review Dates
Last DIF Revision Date: 2004-03-17

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