Monthly mean lower stratospheric temperatures above Australian Antarctic stations.
Entry ID: SOE_low_strato

[ Get Data ]
[ Update this Record ]

Summary
Abstract: INDICATOR DEFINITION
Monthly means of daily temperatures at the 100hPa level (lower stratosphere), from radiosonde soundings above Australian Antarctic stations Casey, Davis, Mawson and Macquarie Island.

TYPE OF INDICATOR
There are three types of indicators used in this report:
1.Describes the CONDITION of important elements of a system;
2.Show the extent of the major PRESSURES exerted on a system;
3.Determine RESPONSES to either condition or changes in the condition of a system.

This indicator is one of: CONDITION

RATIONALE FOR INDICATOR SELECTION
Global climate models show warming in response to increased greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, methane etc) concentrations in the atmosphere; this is called the 'enhanced greenhouse effect'. There is interest in climate variability and change not just at the surface, but extending up into the atmosphere. There is evidence of warming in the lower troposphere, but cooling in the lower stratosphere. Ozone depletion processes are also closely linked to stratospheric temperatures.

DESIGN AND STRATEGY FOR INDICATOR MONITORING PROGRAM
Spatial Scale: Australian Antarctic stations: Casey (lat 66 degrees 16' 54.5" S, long 110 degrees 31' 39.4" E), Davis (lat 68 degrees 34' 35.8" S, long 77 degrees 58' 02.6" E), Mawson (lat 67 degrees 36' 09.7" S, long 62 degrees 52' 25.7" E) and Macquarie Island (lat 54 degrees 37' 59.9" S, long 158 degrees 52' 59.9" E).

Temporal scale: Monthly.

Measurement technique: Radiosonde.

RESEARCH ISSUES

There is need to develop a high-quality data set from the available data, correcting erroneous data and estimating missing data. Adjustment may be necessary for changes in instrumentation or observing practices.

Some of these changes are documented in the station history files held by the Regional Observations Section. These history files are currently held as paper records, although more recent information is held electronically and there is an effort to digitise the older records.

Before the data can be used for the detection of change, a concerted effort will need to be made to identify deficiencies in the data, and then make compensations where possible. This is made more difficult by the lack of suitable comparison sites.

Over recent years satellite data exist, which could be used in conjunction with radiosonde data. Satellite data and radiosonde data from other nations should lead to a greater coverage.

LINKS TO OTHER INDICATORS
SOE Indicators 1 - Monthly mean air temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations
SOE Indicators 2 - Monthly highest air temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations
SOE Indicators 3 - Monthly lowest air temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations
SOE Indicators 5 - Monthly mean mid-tropospheric temperature above Australian Antarctic stations
SOE Indicators 6 - Daily mean 10m Firn Temperatures at AWS sites in the AAT (deg C)
SOE Indicators 8 - Monthly mean of three-hourly mean sea level pressures (hPa)
SOE Indicators 11 - Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gas species
SOE Indicators 12 - Noctilucent cloud observations at Davis
SOE Indicators 13 - Polar stratospheric cloud observations at Davis
SOE Indicators 14 - Midwinter atmospheric temperature at altitude 87km
SOE Indicators 16 - Extent of summer surface glacial melt (sq km)
SOE Indicators 42 - Antarctic sea ice extent and concentration
SOE Indicators 43 - Fast ice thickness at Davis and Mawson
SOE Indicators 56 - Monthly fuel usage of the generator sets and boilers
SOE Indicators 59 - Monthly electricity usage

Note - Station codes in the data are as follows:
300000 - Davis
300001 - Mawson
300004 - Macquarie Island
300017 - Casey

The fields in this dataset are:
Mean 100hPa Temperature
Year
Month
Station
Station Code
Value
Enough Observations
Number Observations

Related URL
Link: GET DATA
Description: Display Antarctic State of Environment Indicator 4


Link: GET DATA
Description: Download page for Australian Antarctic Data Centre


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset


Geographic Coverage
 N: -54.0 S: -69.0  E: 159.0  W: 61.0
 Min Altitude: 100 HPA  Max Altitude: 100 HPA

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1948-04-01


Location Keywords
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > MACQUARIE ISLAND
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Casey
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Davis
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Mawson
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
VERTICAL LOCATION > STRATOSPHERE


Data Resolution
Temporal Resolution: Monthly


Science Keywords
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE >AIR TEMPERATURE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE


Platform
WEATHER STATIONS    [Information]


Instrument
TEMPERATURE SENSORS    [Information]
RAWINSONDES    [Information]


Quality
Monthly mean lower stratospheric temperatures are calculated from daily observations of temperature at the 100hPa level. Observations are restricted to within a few hours of 0000UTC to avoid biases and to allow comparison with limited historical data. If less than 25 daily observations are available for a given month, the monthly data are flagged and removed from the State of Environment dataset.

The monthly lower stratospheric air temperature anomaly is calculated as the difference between the mean lower stratospheric air temperature for a given month and the long-term mean lower stratospheric air temperature for that calendar month between 1971 and 2000, so that:

Anomaly (for given month) = Value (for given month) - Long-term Mean (for relevant calendar month)

Although the Bureau of Meteorology uses the period from 1961 to 1990 as the standard period for calculation of long-term means, it was decided that for Antarctic stations, the 1971-2000 dataset was in most cases more complete, and would therefore provide a more accurate long-term mean.

These records require analysis for variability and trends. However, there are likely to be significant errors in the data, and these need to be addressed first (see Research Issues).

The data are subject to a number of quality checks, although these will not prevent errors:

- The radiosonde checks the reasonableness of raw values from the probes whilst converting to temperature.

- The receiving station applies reasonableness checks, generally with the involvement of a human observer.


Access Constraints
Data arising from this project are available from the state of the environment indicator URL given below.


Use Constraints
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=SOE_low_... when using these data.


Keywords
ENOUGH OBSERVATIONS
MEAN
MEAN 100HPA TEMPERATURE
MONTH
NUMBER OBSERVATIONS
STATION
TEMPERATURE
UPPER
VALUE
YEAR


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
Bureau of Meteorology


Data Center
Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://data.aad.gov.au

Data Center Personnel
Name: DATA OFFICER AADC
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: metadata at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia


Bureau of Meteorology, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/

Data Center Personnel
Name: CLIMATE SERVICES
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


Tasmanian-Antarctica Regional Office, Bureau of Meteorology, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/weather/tas/

Data Center Personnel
Name: CLIMATE SERVICES
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia



Distribution
Distribution_Media: HTTP
Fees: Free


Personnel
CLIMATE SERVICES
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Role: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


REGIONAL OBSERVATIONS SECTION
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +61 3 6221 2071
Fax: (via) +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Regional Observations Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


IAN BARNES-KEOGAHN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: I.Barnes-Keogahn at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


Publications/References
French, J., Burns, G., Greet, P. and French, K. (2000), Antarctic Noctilucent Clouds: The Upper Atmosphere Exposed to View., The Physicist, 37, 3, 85-90

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2001-04-24
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-09-12

[ Update this Record ]


Link to Web Site