NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey Studies [Planning Stage]Entry ID: NASA_Decadal_Survey_Place_Holder
Abstract: [These missions are in the planning stage. Please monitor the project web sites for mission updates]
[Source: NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Earth Sciences, http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/decadal-surveys/ ]
NASA relies on the science ... community to identify and prioritize leading-edge scientific questions and the observations required to answer them. One principal means by which NASA’s Science Mission Directorate engages the science community in this task is through the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC conducts studies that provide a science community consensus on key questions posed by NASA and other U.S. Government agencies. The broadest of these studies in NASA’s areas of research are decadal surveys. As the name implies, NASA and its partners ask the NRC once each decade to look out ten or more years into the future and prioritize research areas, observations, and notional missions to make those observations.
The NRC completed its first decadal survey for Earth science, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (NRC, 2007) in January 2007 at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. [At this URL, click on “Sign In” to download a free pdf of the report.] At the highest level, the report recommends that: “The U.S. government, working in concert with the private sector, academe, the public, and its international partners, should renew its investment in Earth-observing systems and restore its leadership in Earth science and applications.”
Detailed recommendations in the decadal survey are provided in three categories:
* Setting the Foundation: Observations in the Current Decade
* New Observations for the Next Decade
* Turning Satellite Observations into Knowledge and Information
For the next decade, the decadal survey identified 15 new space missions for NASA (including 1 joint mission with NOAA) and 3 missions for NOAA (including the 1 joint mission). The 15 missions for NASA are presented in three time-phased blocks. Importantly, the 17 missions are presented as the result of a “prioritization methodology designed to achieve a robust, integrated program”(pg. 7) and the “missions listed…form a minimal, yet robust, observational component of an Earth information system that is capable of addressing a broad range of societal needs.”
Information regarding all missions is available at the following home page:
(Click for Interactive Map)
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: NASA Science Mission Directorate, Earth Sciences
Dataset Title: NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey StudiesOnline Resource: http://decadal.gsfc.nasa.gov/
AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > CROP/PLANT YIELDS
AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > CROPPING SYSTEMS
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT
ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTH/THICKNESS
ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > CARBONACEOUS AEROSOLS
ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > CLOUD CONDENSATION NUCLEI
ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > DUST/ASH/SMOKE
ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > NITRATE PARTICLES
ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > ORGANIC PARTICLES
ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > PARTICULATE MATTER
ATMOSPHERE > AEROSOLS > SULFATE PARTICLES
ATMOSPHERE > AIR QUALITY > EMISSIONS
ATMOSPHERE > AIR QUALITY > SMOG
ATMOSPHERE > AIR QUALITY > TROPOSPHERIC OZONE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA > FREEZE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA > STORMS
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE > ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR > HUMIDITY
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > SURFACE WINDS
ATMOSPHERE > CLOUDS > CLOUD PROPERTIES > CLOUD FREQUENCY
ATMOSPHERE > CLOUDS > CLOUD PROPERTIES > CLOUD HEIGHT
ATMOSPHERE > CLOUDS > CLOUD PROPERTIES > CLOUD TOP TEMPERATURE
ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > PRECIPITATION AMOUNT
ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > RAIN
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > OUTGOING LONGWAVE RADIATION
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > CANOPY CHARACTERISTICS
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > VEGETATION COVER
CRYOSPHERE > SEA ICE > ICE DEPTH/THICKNESS
CRYOSPHERE > SEA ICE > ICE EXTENT
CRYOSPHERE > SEA ICE > ICE GROWTH/MELT
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > FREEZE/THAW
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > ICE DEPTH/THICKNESS
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > ICE EXTENT
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > ICE GROWTH/MELT
CRYOSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW DEPTH
HUMAN DIMENSIONS > HABITAT CONVERSION/FRAGMENTATION > DEFORESTATION
HUMAN DIMENSIONS > NATURAL HAZARDS > WILDFIRES
HUMAN DIMENSIONS > NATURAL HAZARDS > FLOODS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GROUND WATER > GROUND WATER DISCHARGE/FLOW
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GROUND WATER > DRAINAGE
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > FREEZE/THAW
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > ICE EXTENT
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW DEPTH
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > FLOODS
LAND SURFACE > EROSION/SEDIMENTATION > LANDSLIDES
LAND SURFACE > LAND USE/LAND COVER > LAND COVER
LAND SURFACE > LAND USE/LAND COVER > LAND PRODUCTIVITY
LAND SURFACE > LAND USE/LAND COVER > LAND RESOURCES
LAND SURFACE > LAND USE/LAND COVER > LAND USE CLASSES
LAND SURFACE > TOPOGRAPHY > LANDFORMS
LAND SURFACE > TOPOGRAPHY > TOPOGRAPHICAL RELIEF
LAND SURFACE > TOPOGRAPHY > TERRAIN ELEVATION
OCEANS > BATHYMETRY/SEAFLOOR TOPOGRAPHY > SEAFLOOR TOPOGRAPHY
OCEANS > COASTAL PROCESSES > INTERTIDAL ZONE
OCEANS > COASTAL PROCESSES > SEA LEVEL RISE
OCEANS > COASTAL PROCESSES > TIDAL HEIGHT
OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
OCEANS > SEA ICE > ICE EXTENT
OCEANS > TIDES > TIDAL CURRENTS
OCEANS > TIDES > TIDAL HEIGHT
OCEANS > TIDES > TIDAL RANGE
SOLID EARTH > GRAVITY/GRAVITATIONAL FIELD > GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
SOLID EARTH > GRAVITY/GRAVITATIONAL FIELD > GRAVITY
SOLID EARTH > GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES > COASTAL LANDFORMS
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE OCCURRENCES
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > EARTHQUAKES > EARTHQUAKE PREDICTIONS
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > VOLCANIC ACTIVITY > ERUPTION DYNAMICS
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > VOLCANIC ACTIVITY > ERUPTION DYNAMICS > ASH/DUST COMPOSITION
SOLID EARTH > TECTONICS > VOLCANIC ACTIVITY > ERUPTION DYNAMICS > VOLCANIC GASES
CRYOSPHERE > SEA ICE > SNOW DEPTH
CRYOSPHERE > SEA ICE > SEA ICE ELEVATION
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC WINDS > BOUNDARY LAYER WINDS
CRYOSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIER MASS BALANCE/ICE SHEET MASS BALANCE
CRYOSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIER THICKNESS/ICE SHEET THICKNESS
CRYOSPHERE > GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS > GLACIER ELEVATION/ICE SHEET ELEVATION
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY > CARBON AND HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS > CARBON DIOXIDE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY > OXYGEN COMPOUNDS > OZONE
Quality All reasonable efforts have been made to remove data affected to any degree by questionable observational conditions, however questionable data likely are still present. Here are the currently-identified issues with the LVIS dataset:
Canopy height bias.
1. Low-lying ground fog was present in some areas (swamps, river valleys etc). This will cause canopy height parameters ... (zt, rh25, rh50, rh75) to be higher than in reality.
2. Canopy return misselected during data processing. Weak canopy top returns or spurious higher-amplitude background noise samples were misselected during data processing.
3. Misselected ground return. Obviosuly, if the ground location has been misselected then canopy height products will be biased. Data product zc is unaffected since its elevation is relative to the eliposoid, not the ground.
Ground elevation bias.
1. Ground return is not contained within the waveform and thus cannot be identified.
2. Ground return misselected during data processing, caused by:
- A mode from a higher reflecting layer within the canopy was misselected as the ground return. This misselection usually implies the ground reflection is "weak" (i.e., contains only a small proportion of the reflected energy from the footprint as a whole) and thus has been "overlooked" by the interpretation algorithm.
- Spurious, higher ampitude background noise was misselected as the ground return. Noise due to aircraft operations (radio operations) was a problem during the New England mission.
3. Ground return is indistinct, i.e., the lowest reflection has become convolved with reflections from higher surfaces. This effect is compounded by within footprint slope and surface roughness.
Improvements in our methods of waveform interpretation will enable better data accuracy. Digitally recording the shape of the return laser pulse means that these improvements can easily be applied.
Access Constraints While substantial efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation, complete accuracy of data sets can not be guaranteed. All data are made available "as is". The LVIS team can not assume responsibility for damages resulting from mis-use or mis-interpretation of datasets or from errors or omissions that may exist in the data. Data users are welcome to collaborate with the ... LVIS team, as this may minimize the potential for misinterpretation of the data.
In order to develop an active community and ensure the flow of ideas between interested parties, the LVIS team makes the following suggestions of individuals who download LVIS data:
- On projects that are integrally dependent on LVIS data, you have the option to request collaboration and/or co-authorship from the LVIS team. (NOTE: This is in no way binding. You are free to use the data on your own. You are not expected or required to contact or work with us in any way. This is simply a suggestion.)
- Please acknowledge the source of the data set as the LVIS team/ project and the appropriate NASA Grant numbers responsible for funding these data sets in any publications using these data and documentation (see LVIS Citations)
- Consider notifying (a simple email will suffice) the LVIS Principal Investigator when any derivative work based on or derived from the data and/or documentation is distributed or presented. (We always appreciate when our data is used and helps result in scientific publications.)
- When derivatives of the LVIS data are distributed in any way, notify subsequent users that such derivative work is not the original LVIS data and/or documentation distributed on the LVIS web site.
- Do not redistribute original data and documentation yourself, instead please direct individuals to http://lvis.gsfc.nasa.gov. It is important that we have the ability to contact users of LVIS data so that we can notify them when we upload new data sets and/or correct mistakes in the existing data sets.
- If you would like to share your work with us, we would greatly appreciate it if you would notify us and/or send a reprint of any publications resulting from the use of the data and/or documentation.
Use Constraints See data use at the project home page.
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: Online
Fees: No fees
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Email: James.B.Blair at nasa.gov
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Mailstop 694.0
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: (301) 614-6898
Email: Tyler.B.Stevens at nasa.gov
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global Change Master Directory
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
J. B. Blair, D. L. Rabine, and M. A. Hofton, The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): A medium-altitude, digitization-only, airborne laser altimeter for mapping vegetation and topography, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 54, 115-122, 1999.
Processing of NASA LVIS elevation and canopy (LGE, LCE and LGW) data products, version 1.01. J. B. Blair, M. A. Hofton, and D. L. Rabine. http://lvis.gsfc.nasa.gov, 2006.
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2012-08-22
Last DIF Revision Date: 2012-08-22