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Reproductive strategies of Antarctic penguins.1996-97.
Entry ID: CNDA-ESP_ANT94-0036_PIN_07


Summary
Abstract: In English:
This dataset contains information on:During the Antarctic summer
1996-1997 we studied severas aspects of the breeding biology of the
Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the large colony of
Vapour Col on Deception Island, South Shetland (63d S, 60d40^?
W). First, we studied the factors determining stone collecting
behaviour during the incubation phase. Penguins relieved from
incubation duties spend a certain time collecting stones or stealing
them from neighboring nests and adding them to their own nests. This
behaviour has a significant effect on the size of the nest, which in
turn affects the risk of flooding after snow storms. We wanted to
test if the intensity of stone collecting behaviour is determined by
the present size of the nest. To that end, we removed half of the
stones in certain nests at the beginning of the study and compared the
change in nest weight during a period of two weeks with nests which
were just weighed without being changed in size. Parents with
experimentally reduced nests added more stones to their nests than
parents of control nests. This result confirms that stone-collecting
has as its function to increase nest size and thus reduce the risk of
flooding.In another study, we tested if breeding date is associated to
parental condition, birds in worse condition and with impaired immune
response breeding later. To this end, we took blood samples of
parents soon after hatching of their chicks and after 45
days, thus looking at changes in condition throughout the nestling
period. The following parameters of blood were measured: haematocrit,
sedimentation rate, height of buffy coat layer (white blood cells) and
relative amount of different types of white blood cells (blood
smears). To measure cell-mediated immune function we measured the in
vivo hypersensitivity response to an intradermal injection of
phytohemagglutinin in one of the interdigital webs. Early parents had
smaller buffy coat layers in blood and a stronger immune response than
late parents soon after hatching, suggesting that early breeders had a
better health state than late breeders. Failed breeders had
significantly smaller buffy coat layers than early breeders but very
similar to late breeders. Parents had significantly lower
haematocrits and greater buffy coat layers at the end of the nestling
period than at the beginning, showing that health state deteriorates
throughout the nestling period. No difference between early and late
breeders was detected at the end of the nestling period, suggesting
that nutritional condition and health state deteriorates more for
early than for late breeders. In another study, we related the mass of
food carried by parents in their stomachs to feed their chicks during
the creche phase, obtained through weighings before and after feeding,
with breeding date, sex, number of chicks and body size. Only body
size had a significant effect on feed weight, suggesting an advantage
of large body size which allows maximization of food carried per
visit. Finally, we compared the flipper lengths (indicative of body
size) of a large sample of newly independent chicks and of fresh carcasses
appearing in large numbers on beaches soon after fledging in the
colonies. Carcasses had significantly shorter flippers than the
sample of newly independent chicks, showing that undersized chicks do
not survive the first days at sea. There is a strong selection
favouring the largest chicks.

En Espanol:

Esta ficha contiene informacion sobre: Durante el verano antartico
1996-1997 estudiamos distintos aspectos de la biologia reproductiva
del Pinguino Barbijo (Pygoscelis antarctica) en la extensa colonia de
Vapour Col en la isla Decepcion, Islas Shetland del Sur (63 degree S,
60 degrees 40^? W). Primeramente, estudiamos los factores determinantes
del comportamiento en la recoleccion de piedras durante la fase de
incubacion. Los pinguinos liberados de las labores de incubacion
pasaban un cierto tiempo recolectando piedras o robandolas de los
nidos cercanos y anadiendolas a sus propios nidos. Este comportamiento
tiene un efecto significativo en el tamano del nido, el cual puede
volverse vulnerable a las inundaciones tras las tormentas de
nieve. Quisimos probar si la intensidad en la recoleccion de piedras
esta determinada por el tamano del nido. Para ese fin, quitamos la
mitad de las piedras en algunos nidos al principio del estudio y
comparamos el cambio en el peso del nido en un periodo de dos semanas
con nidos cuyo peso no habia sido modificado. Los padres de nidos
experimentalmente reducios anadieron mas piedras a sus nidos que los
padres de nidos controlados. Este resultado confirma que la
recoleccion de piedras tiene como funcion el incremento del tamano del
nido y como consecuencia la reduccion del riesgo de inundacion.En otro
estudio, probamos si la fecha de reproduccion esta asociada a la
condicion de los padres, los pajaros en peores condiciones y con
respuestas inmunes danadas se reproducian mas tarde. Para este fin,
tomamos muestras de sangre a los padres poco despues de la eclosion de
los pollos y cuando estos tenian 45 dias, de este modo se ve?an los
cambios en las condiciones a traves del periodo de anidamiento. Fueron
medidos los siguientes parametros en sangre: hematocritos, tasa de
sedimentacion, leucocitos y cantidades relativas de distintos tipos de
leucocitos. Para medir las celulas del sistema inmunologico se midio
en vivo la respuesta a la hipersensibilidad mediante una inyeccion
intradermica de fitohemaglutina en uno de los tejidos
interdigitales. Los padres tempranos tenian menos leucocitos en sangre
y una respuesta inmunologica mas fuerte que los padres tardios poco
despues de la eclosion, sugiriendo que los reproductores tempranos
tenian un mejor estado de salud que los tardios. Los reproductores
fallidos tenian significativamente un menor numero de leucocitos que
los tempranos pero similar a los tardios. Los padres tenian
significativamente menor numero de hematocritod y mas leucocitos al
final del periodo de anidamiento que al principio mostrando que el
estado de salud se deteriora a traves del periodo de anidamiento,
sugiriendo que la condicion nutricional y el estado de salud se
deteriora mas en reproductores tempranos que tardios. En otro estudio,
relacionamos la cantidad de comida llevada por los padres en el
estomago para alimentar a sus crias durante la fase de guarderia,
obteniendo a traves de pesados antes y despues de la alimentacion, con
fechas de reproduccion, sexo, numero de pollos y talla del
cuerpo. Solo la talla del cuerpo tenia un efecto significativo en el
peso del alimento, sugiriendo una ventaja en aquellos de cuerpos
grandes ya que permite un mayor transporte de alimento en cada
visita. Finalmente, comparamos el largo de las aletas (indicativo del
tamano del cuerpo) de una amplia muestra de pollos recientemente
independientes y los cadaveres frescos aparecidos en un gran numero de
playas poco despues del nacimiento en las colonias. Los cadaveres
tenian unas aletas significativamente mas cortas que las de las
muestras de pollos recientemente independientes, mostrando que los
pollos por debajo de la talla no sobreviven al primer dia en el
mar. Esta es una fuerte selecci?n a favor de los pollos mas grandes.

Parent DIF
This description is a member of a collection. The collection is described in
CNDA-ESP_PIN_PAD


Geographic Coverage
 N: -63.0 S: -63.0  E: -60.0  W: -60.0

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1995-12-10
Stop Date: 1996-02-28


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Antarctic Peninsula > Scotia Sea > South Shetland Islands > Deception Island
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
AGRICULTURE >ANIMAL SCIENCE >ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS    [Definition]
AGRICULTURE >ANIMAL SCIENCE >ANIMAL ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR    [Definition]
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES >BIRDS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >SPECIES COMPETITION    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >SPECIES PREDATION    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >POST-BREEDING PERIODS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >SURVIVAL RATES    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS >TROPHIC DYNAMICS    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
FARMING
BIOTA
OCEANS


Platform
OBSERVATORIES    [Information]


Instrument
VISUAL OBSERVATIONS    [Information]


Keywords
BREEDING BIOLOGY
BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY
CHINSTRAP PENGUIN
NEST MAINTENANCE
INMUNE RESPONSE
HEALTH STATE
PARENTAL INVESTMENT
BODY SIZE


Data Center
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Espana    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.mncn.csic.es
Dataset ID: Pagina Institucional

Data Center Personnel
Name: JUAN MORENO KLEMMING
Phone: +34 914111328
Fax: +34 915646078
Email: jmoreno at mncn.csic.es
Contact Address:
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal
City: Madrid
Postal Code: 228006
Country: SPAIN



Distribution
Distribution_Media: CD-ROM;DAT
Distribution_Format: ASCII;BINARY


Personnel
ANTONIO BARRAGAN SANABRIA
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +34913495731
Fax: +34913495929
Email: a.barragan at igme.es
Contact Address:
Centro Nacional de Datos Antarticos
Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana
c/Rios Rosas 23
City: Madrid
Postal Code: 28003
Country: SPAIN


JUAN MORENO KLEMMING
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +34 914111328
Fax: +34 915646078
Email: jmoreno at mncn.csic.es
Contact Address:
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal
City: Madrid
Postal Code: 228006
Country: SPAIN



Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2003-09-01
Last DIF Revision Date: 2016-01-27



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