Optical Measurements of Sprites and Elves at StanfordEntry ID: ELVES_SPRITES_LIGHTNING
Abstract: Image and wave frequency data from Stanford led experiments concerning the lightning phenomena, Red Sprites and Elves, are available here.
"Elves" are transient luminous events in the lower ionosphere produced by nitrogen fluorescence due to electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) from intense return strokes of lightning discharges. The Fly's Eye is an array of photomultipier tubes designed to ... time-resolve the horizontal development of intense sub-millisecond ionospheric flashes that have come to be known as "elves". The Fly's Eye was built at Stanford University and deployed during the 1996 Sprites Campaign, and the data below were collected from Yucca Ridge Field Station near Fort Collins, Colorado, during July, 1996.
The Dobsonian Sprite Experiment uses a wide-field-of-view camera mounted on top of a telescope. Both the wide and narrow fields-of-view are recorded with image intensified CCD video cameras, with simultaneous recording of a broadband VLF crossed-loop antenna signal and GPS IRIG-B on the audio channels. Additionally a red-filtered Hamamatsu photomultiplier tube is mounted on top of the telescope and its signal is also recorded on an audio channel. The location is the terrace of the Langmuir Laboratory annex, located on the 11,000 ft high South Baldy peak, providing clear views of thunderstorms in Kansas, Colorado, Texas, and the north-west coast of Mexico.
Image and graph data from the above mentioned experiments can be found at:
(Click for Interactive Map)
Email: cpbl at stanford.edu
Green College 138 - 6201 Cecil Green Park Road
Province or State: British Columbia
Postal Code: V6T-1Z1
Email: nleht at physics.stanford.edu
Glukhov, V. S., and U. S. Inan, Particle simulation of the time-dependent
interaction with the ionosphere of rapidly varying lightning EMP, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 16, 1996.
Fukunishi, H. Y., Y Takahashi, M. Kubota, K. Sakanoi, U. S. Inan and W.A.
Lyons, Elves: Lightning-induced transient luminous events in the lower
ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2157, 1996.
Inan, U.S., W.A. Sampson and Y. N. Taranenko, Space-time structure of optical flashes and ionization changes produced by lightning-EMP, Geophys. Res. Lett.,23 ,133 , 1996.
Inan, U. S., C. Barrington-Leigh, S. Hansen, V. S. Glukhov, and T. F. Bell,
Rapid Lateral Expansion of Optical Iuminosity in Lightning-Induced Ionospheric Flashes Referred to as 'Elves', Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 583, 1997.
Boccippio, D.J., E.R. Williams, S.L. Heckman, W.A. Lyons, I.T. Baker and R.
Boldi, 1995: Sprites, Q-bursts and Positive Ground Strokes. Science,
Cummins, Kenneth L, Martin J. Murphy, Edward A Bardo, William L. Hiscox,
Richard B. Pyle, and Alburt E. Pifer, A Combined TOA/MDF Technology Upgrade of the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 9035, 1998. Fukunishi, H. Y., Y. Takahashi, M. Kubota, K. Sakanoi, U. S. Inan, and W. A. Lyons, Elves: Lightning-induced transient luminous events in the lower ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2157, 1996.
Inan, U. S., T. F. Bell, and J. V. Rodriguez, Heating and ionization of the
lower ionosphere by lightning, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 705, 1991. Inan, U. S., W. A. Sampson, and Y. N. Taranenko, Space-time structure of optical flashes and ionization changes produced by lightning-EMP, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23,133, 1996.
Inan, U. S., C. Barrington-Leigh, S. Hansen, V. S. Glukhov, T. F. Bell, and R. Rairden, Rapid Lateral Expansion of Optical Luminosity in Lightning-Induced Ionospheric Flashes Referred to as `Elves,' Geophys. Res. Lett., 24,5, 1997.
Orville, Richard E, Cloud-to-ground lightning flash characteristics in the
contiguous United States: 1989-1991, J. Geophys. Res., 99, D5, 1994.
Taranenko, Y. N., U. S. Inan and T. F. Bell, Interaction with the lower
ionosphere of electromagnetic pulses from lightning: heating, attachment, and ionization, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1539,1993a.
Taranenko, Y. N., U. S. Inan and T. F. Bell, The interaction with the lower
ionosphere of electromagnetic pulses form lightning: excitation of optical
emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2675, 1993b.
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2004-07-19
Last DIF Revision Date: 2011-09-23