Daily broad-band ultra-violet radiation observations using biologically effective UVR detectors
Entry ID: ARPANSA_BIO

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Summary
Abstract: This dataset also forms part of the set of State of the Environment (SOE) indicators.

INDICATOR DEFINITION
Daily measurements of solar Ultra-Violet radiation at Casey and Davis stations, reported in units of standard erythemal dose (SED).

TYPE OF INDICATOR
There are three types of indicators used in this report:
1.Describes the CONDITION of important elements of a system;
2.Show the extent of the major PRESSURES exerted on a system;
3.Determine RESPONSES to either condition or changes in the condition of a system.

This indicator is one of: CONDITION and PRESSURE

RATIONALE FOR INDICATOR SELECTION
Stratospheric ozone depletion began in the mid-1970's and is likely to persist until mid this century or beyond. Ozone depletion allows more short wavelength, biologically damaging, UVB radiation (280-320 nm) to reach the Earth's surface. Thus, organisms living beneath depleted ozone are likely to be impacted by enhanced UVB irradiances. Enhanced UVB irradiances can increase the incidence of skin cancer, cataract eye disease and even immune system suppression in humans. It can also reduce the growth, productivity and survival of marine organisms and can cause changes in the structure and function of Antarctic marine communities. This indicator provides a direct measure of the extent and magnitude to which UV irradiances are enhanced and provides vital data against which biological responses to UV exposure can be normalised.

Living organisms are sensitive to UV radiation because vital biological molecules such as DNA, lipids and proteins absorb strongly in these wavelengths. DNA, with a peak absorption at 260 nm, is particularly sensitive, and is liable to mutation. DNA damage has been extensively studied in microbial and mammalian systems where UV-induced damage produces two distinct effects, mutagenesis and toxicity. In humans the impact of DNA damage manifests mainly as skin cancer. DNA damage in plants has been the subject of relatively few studies (Britt, 1999; Taylor et al, 1996; Vornarx et al, 1998) with most research examining impacts of UV-B on growth or photosynthesis, predominantly using crop plants. Terrestrial plants are potentially very vulnerable to UV-B induced DNA damage. Firstly the levels of UV-B are higher on land than in water. In addition plants rely on light for photosynthesis and are therefore adapted to absorb high levels of solar radiation (and the associated, harmful UV-B). Defence mechanisms to protect against damaging high energy UV radiation are also found in plants. Compounds such as flavonoids, and carotenoids absorb UV radiation and act as sun-screens, reducing the levels of UV-B at the molecular level. Research has been limited in Antarctic plants but there are clear differences in protective pigment levels in 3 Antarctic mosses with Grimmia antarctici (an endemic species) showing low levels of these pigments compared to other cosmopolitan species (Robinson et al 2001). This suggests that the endemic species may be more vulnerable to UV-B damage. Studies have recently commenced to investigate DNA-damage in these plants. Work by Skotnicki and coworkers (Skotnicki et al 2000) which shows high levels of somatic mutation could also be a result of UV-B exposure.

DESIGN AND STRATEGY FOR INDICATOR MONITORING PROGRAM
Spatial Scale: The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency take broadband in situ observations at Antarctic mainland stations (Casey, Davis and Mawson) and at Macquarie Island.

Frequency: Continuous measurements

Measurement Technique: Broad band UV radiometry (use of biometer or biologically effective UVR detector). Total UVR measurements are also made using an Eppley TUV radiometer (responds across 290 to 400 nm wavelength range). Spectral measurements have also been made at Davis station. Readings are taken every ten minutes and the total SED's calculated for the day.

RESEARCH ISSUES
A need exists for a comprehensive monitoring network of broadband measurements, complemented by a small baseline network of precision spectral measurements across the nation. Such a network is being planned by the Bureau of Meteorology to link directly with the basic national meteorological observations. Validation of satellite data with surface based measurements (ARPANSA) over Australia for the period 1979-1992 has been carried out (Udelhofen et al 1999) and a follow up is planned for 1992-2000. Validation of satellite data and surface UVR measurements over the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic is planned between the Antarctic Division, ARPANSA and Dan Lubin at UCLA.

LINKS TO OTHER INDICATORS
SOE Indicator 9 - Daily records of total column ozone at Macquarie Island

DATA DESCRIPTION
10 minute averages of weighted UVR (CIE 1987 spectral effectiveness).

The data in the files is :

Date, time, total solar radiation (counts), gain 1, Total UVR (counts), gain 2, UVB(counts), gain 3, biometer , temperature.

Main Detector is Solar Light UVBiometers (SL501)

Detector 1 - Eppley total solar radiation pyranometer.
Detector 2 - Eppley total UVR (TUV) radiometer - covers wavelength range 290 to 400 nm.
Detector 3 - International Light UVB radiometer - covers wavelength range 290 to 315 nm.
Detector 4 - Solar Light UVBiometer (SL501) - approximates CIE erythemal spectral effectiveness.

The 2nd last column is the biometer in MEDs/hr (1 MED is 200 J/m2 effective weighted with the CIE (1987) erythemal response) and the last column is temperature inside the detector.

The 3 other detectors, with outputs in counts, are the total solar, Total UVR (TUV) and the UVB.

Data are stored as zipped up .dat files.

The fields in this dataset are:
Date
Time
Total Solar Radiation (counts)
Gain 1
Total UVR (counts)
Gain 2
UVB(counts)
Gain 3
Biometer
Temperature

Related URL
Link: GET DATA
Description: Download point for the data - .dat files and excel spreadsheet


Link: GET DATA
Description: Display Antarctic State of Environment Indicator 10 and access online data


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: ARPANSA website


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: File to convert Casey Station data from Geographicals to Lambert Azimuthal Projection


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset


Geographic Coverage
 N: -54.55 S: -54.65  E: 158.9  W: 158.8
 N: -66.25 S: -66.35  E: 110.55  W: 110.45
 N: -67.55 S: -67.65  E: 62.94  W: 62.84
 N: -68.55 S: -68.65  E: 78.0  W: 77.9

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1997-09-01

Start Date: 1996-07-23

Start Date: 2001-02-06

Start Date: 2002-02-07


Location Keywords
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > MACQUARIE ISLAND
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Casey
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Davis
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Mawson
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE >AIR TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION >ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY >OXYGEN COMPOUNDS >OZONE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
BIOTA
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE


Platform
FIXED OBSERVATION STATIONS    [Information]


Instrument
AAS >Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry    [Information]


Quality
The amount of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reaching the ground is controlled by physical factors including the height of the sun in the sky, time of day, cloud cover, ozone concentrations overhead and reflectance at the surface by ice and snow (albedo). In Antarctica, the combination of these factors leads to erythemal irradiances higher than those experienced in the tropics.

The energy of solar radiation, and thus its capacity to damage life in Antarctica, increases with decreasing wavelength. Ozone depletion specifically enhances the shorter wavelengths of the UV spectrum (UVB 280 to 320 nm). Measurements of solar UVR in the past have generally been of either UVR (280 to 400 nm) or more importantly, UVB (280 to 315 nm); these lower wavelengths are very effective in producing damaging biological effects. More recently, in order to relate UV flux measurements to human health, biologically effective UVR is measured using a radiometer that approximates the response of human skin to different wavelengths of UVR. This erythemal spectral effectiveness was defined by the Commission Internationale d E'clairage (International Lighting Commission - CIE) in 1987. The units are minimal erythemal doses (MED) where 1 MED is the amount of UVR required to induce erythema or sunburn in people with sensitive skin.

Ten-minute readings are added together to provide an indication of the total UVR incident at the surface each day. Daily readings of biologically effective solar UVR is in standard erythemal doses (SEDs : 1 SED is 100 J/m2 effective).

For quality-controlled data, the trends in UV can be analysed and compared with those in ozone. The interannual variability due to variations in ozone, cloudiness and other atmospheric parameters needs to be accounted for.

These data (Mawson in particular) could be subject to change upon revision of the calibrations at a future date. Unfortunately there is a large gap in the data from Davis.

2010-10-12
There are currently some data gaps for Mawson and Macquarie Island. The Macquarie Island instrument failed in November 2007 and Mawson failed in December 2007. The replacement equipment was installed in late April 2008. Due to ARPANSA IT issues connection to the instruments took some time.

Note that the most recent excel spreadsheet stored in the download file will be the most accurate, and should be used in preference to all other excel spreadsheets, or .dat data.


Access Constraints
These data can be viewed at the URL given below for 'Display Antarctic State of Environment Indicator 10', or alternatively, downloaded as a file from the provided URL. The download file contains a number of zipped .dat files and two excel spreadsheets, one for data as it stood in mid-2007, and one for data as it stood in mid-2008.


Use Constraints
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=ARPANSA_BIO when using these data.


Keywords
BIOLOGICALLY WEIGHTED
BIOMETER
DATE
ERYTHEMAL UVR
GAIN 1
GAIN 2
GAIN 3
SOLAR LIGHT BIOMETER
TEMPERATURE
TIME
TOTAL SOLAR RADIATION
TOTAL UVR
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
UV-B


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Authority


Data Center
Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://data.aad.gov.au

Data Center Personnel
Name: DATA OFFICER AADC
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: metadata at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia



Distribution
Distribution_Media: HTTP
Distribution_Size: 3,626 kb
Distribution_Format: Excel, .dat
Fees: free


Personnel
COLIN ROY
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +61 3 9433 2286
Fax: +61 3 9432 1835
Email: COLIN.ROY at arpansa.gov.au
Contact Address:
AUSTRALIAN RADIATION LABS
LOWER PLENTY ROAD
City: YALLAMBIE
Province or State: VIC
Postal Code: 3085
Country: Australia


PETER GIES
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +61 3 9433 2285
Fax: +61 3 9432 1835
Email: peter.gies at arpansa.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency
Non Ionizing Radiation Branch
Ultraviolet Radiation Section
Lower Plenty Road Yallambie 3085
City: Yallambie
Province or State: Victoria
Postal Code: 3085
Country: Australia


STUART HENDERSON
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +61 3 9433 2391
Fax: +61 3 9432 1835
Email: stuart.henderson at arpansa.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency
Non Ionizing Radiation Branch
Ultraviolet Radiation Section
Lower Plenty Road Yallambie 3085
City: Yallambie
Province or State: Victoria
Postal Code: 3085
Country: Australia


Publications/References
Britt A.B. (1999), Trends in Plant Science, 4, 20-25

Taylor R.M., Nikaido O, Jordan B.R., Rosamond J., Bray C.M. and Tobin A.K. (1996), Plant Cell Environ, 19, 171-181

Vornarx E.J. Mitchell H.L., Karthikeyan R., Chatterjee I. and Kunz B.A. (1998), Unknown, Mutation Res, 400, 187-200

Robinson S.A., Wasley J., Turnbull J. and Lovelock C.E. (2001), Unknown, Proc. 12th Int. Cong. Photosynthesis (in press)

Roy CR, Gies HP and Elliott G. (1989), The ARL Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Measurement Programme, Transactions of the Menzies Foundation 'The Ozone Layer and Health, 15, 71-76

Roy CR and Gies HP. (1989), Ozone Depletion and its Calculated Effect on Solar UVB Radiation Levels for some Australian Cities., Ch 3 in 'Health Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion' NHMRC, 37-69, AGPS Canberra

Roy CR, Gies HP and Elliott G. (1990), Ozone Depletion., Nature, 347, 235-236

Roy CR and Gies HP (1991), Solar Ultraviolet Radiation: Measurement Techniques and the Australian Network., Ozone Depletion: Implications for the Tropics' (M Ilyas Ed), Uni Malaysia and UNEP, 114-125

Roy CR and Gies HP (1992), Results from an Australian Solar UVR Measurement Network and Implications for Radiation Protection Policy., Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, May 17-22, 1992, 1, 759-762, Montreal

CR Roy and HP Gies (1993), Measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation in the Southern Hemisphere., In Proceedings of the International Symposium 'Environmental UV Radiation and Health Effects', May 4-6 1993, 71-78, Munich, Germany

RL McKenzie, M Kotkamp, G Seckmeyer, R Erb, CR Roy, HP Gies and SJ Toomey (1993), First Southern Hemisphere Intercomparison of Measured Solar UV Spectra., Geophys Res Let, 20, 2223-2226

CR Roy, HP Gies, DW Tomlinson and D Lugg (1994), Effects of Ozone Depletion on the ultraviolet radiation environment at the Australian Stations in Antarctica., American Geophysical Union Antarctic Research Series, 62, 1-15, Ultraviolet Radiation in Antarctica: Measurements and Biological Effects

HP Gies, CR Roy, SJ Toomey and D Tomlinson (July 26-27, 1994), The ARL Solar UVR measurement network: Calibration and Results., Proceedings SPIE, 2282, Ultraviolet Technology V, San Diego

G Seckmeyer, B Mayer, G Bernhard, RL McKenzie, PV Johnston, M Kotkamp, CR Booth, T Lucas, T Mestechkina, CR Roy, HP Gies and D Tomlinson (1995), Geographical differences in the UV measured by intercompared spectroradiometers., Geophys Res Let, 22, 1889-1892

CR Roy, HP Gies and S Toomey (1995), The solar UV radiation environment: measurement techniques and results., J Photochem Photobiol B: Biology, 99, 21-27

CR Roy, HP Gies and SJ Toomey (April 14-19 1996), Climatology of UVB and ozone variations and the global solar UV-Index., Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, 1, 353-360, Vienna

C Roy, H Gies and S Toomey (1996), Monitoring UV-B at the earth's surface, Cancer Forum, 20, 173-179

D Lubin, EH Jensen and P Gies (1998), Global Surface Ultraviolet Radiation Climatology from TOMS and ERBE data, J Geophys Res, 103, 26,061-91

CR Roy, HP Gies, DL Lugg, S Toomey and DW Tomlinson (1998), The measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation, Mutation Research, 422, 7-14

PM Udelhofen, P Gies, C Roy and WJ Randel (1999), Surface UV radiation over Australia, 1979-1992: Effects of ozone and cloud cover changes on variations of UV radiation, J Geophys Res, 104, 19135-19159

L Lemus-Deschamps, L Rikus and P Gies (1999), The operational Australian Ultraviolet Index forecast 1997, Meteorological Applications, 6, 241-251

HP Gies, CR Roy, S Toomey and D Tomlinson (1999), Ambient Solar UVR, Personal Exposure and Protection, J Epidemiology, 9, S115-S121, Tokyo, Presented at the International Workshop on Health Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation 17-19 Feb 1999

Taylor R.M., Nikaido O, Jordan B.R., Rosamond J., Bray C.M. and Tobin A.K (1996), Unknown, Plant Cell Environ, 19, 171-181

Vornarx E.J. Mitchell H.L., Karthikeyan R., Chatterjee I. and Kunz B.A. (1998), Unknown, Mutation Res., 400, 187-200

Robinson S.A., Wasley J., Turnbull J. and Lovelock C.E. (2001), Unknown, Proc. 12th Int. Cong. Photosynthesis, (in press)

Skotnicki, M.L., Ninham, J.A. and Selkirk, P.M. (2000), Unknown, Antarct. Sci., 12, 363-373

Roy CR, Gies HP and Elliott G. (1989), The ARL Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Measurement Programme., Transactions of the Menzies Foundation 'The Ozone Layer and Health, 15, 71-76

Roy CR and Gies HP (1989), Ozone Depletion and its Calculated Effect on Solar UVB Radiation Levels for some Australian Cities, Ch 3 in 'Health Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion' NHMRC, 37-69, AGPS Canberra

Roy CR, Gies HP and Elliott G (1990), Ozone Depletion, Nature, 347, 235-236

Roy CR and Gies HP (1991), Solar Ultraviolet Radiation: Measurement Techniques and the Australian Network, Ozone Depletion: Implications for the Tropics' (M Ilyas Ed), 114-125, Uni Malaysia and UNEP

Roy CR and Gies HP (1992), Results from an Australian Solar UVR Measurement Network and Implications for Radiation Protection Policy, Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, 1, 759-762, Montreal, May 17-22

CR Roy and HP Gies (May 4-6, 1993), Measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation in the Southern Hemisphere, In Proceedings of the International Symposium 'Environmental UV Radiation and Health Effects, 71-78, Munich, Germany

RL McKenzie, M Kotkamp, G Seckmeyer, R Erb, CR Roy, HP Gies and SJ Toomey (1993), First Southern Hemisphere Intercomparison of Measured Solar UV Spectra, Geophys Res Let, 20, 2223-2226

CR Roy, HP Gies, DW Tomlinson and D Lugg (1994), Effects of Ozone Depletion on the ultraviolet radiation environment at the Australian Stations in Antarctica., Ultraviolet Radiation in Antarctica: Measurements and Biological Effects. American Geophysical Union Antarctic Research Series, 62, 1-15

HP Gies, CR Roy, SJ Toomey and D Tomlinson (1994), The ARL Solar UVR measurement network: Calibration and Results, Proceedings SPIE, 2282, Ultraviolet Technology V, 274-284, San Diego, July 26-27, 1994

G Seckmeyer, B Mayer, G Bernhard, RL McKenzie, PV Johnston, M Kotkamp, CR Booth, T Lucas, T Mestechkina, CR Roy, HP Gies and D Tomlinson (1995), Geographical differences in the UV measured by intercompared spectroradiometers, Geophys Res Let, 22, 1889-1892

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2001-04-19
Last DIF Revision Date: 2012-11-15

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