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Monthly mean atmospheric pressure for Australian Antarctic Stations
Entry ID: SOE_air_pressure

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Summary
Abstract: INDICATOR DEFINITION
Monthly means of three-hourly pressures, reduced to mean sea level, for Australian Antarctic stations Casey, Davis, Mawson, Macquarie Island and Heard Island.

TYPE OF INDICATOR
There are three types of indicators used in this report:
1.Describes the CONDITION of important elements of a system;
2.Show the extent of the major PRESSURES exerted on a system;
3.Determine RESPONSES to either condition or changes in the condition of a system.

This indicator is one of: CONDITION

RATIONALE FOR INDICATOR SELECTION
Measurement of the pressure over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean is considered important for monitoring behaviour of pressure systems on a local and global scale, which will help to interpret global climate change.

DESIGN AND STRATEGY FOR INDICATOR MONITORING PROGRAM
Spatial Scale: Australian Antarctic stations: Casey (lat 66 degrees 16' 54.5" S, long 110 degrees 31' 39.4" E), Davis (lat 68 degrees 34' 35.8" S, long 77 degrees 58' 02.6" E), Mawson (lat 67 degrees 36' 09.7" S, long 62 degrees 52' 25.7" E), Macquarie Island (lat 54 degrees 37' 59.9" S, long 158 degrees 52' 59.9" E), Atlas Cove, Heard Island (lat 53 degrees 1' 8" S, long 73
degrees 23' 30" E) and Spit Bay, Heard Island (lat 53 degrees 6' 30" S, 73 degrees 43' 21" E).

Frequency: Monthly.

Measurement technique: Barometry.

RESEARCH ISSUES
There is need to develop a high-quality data set from the available data, correcting erroneous data and estimating missing data. Adjustment may be necessary for changes in site location or exposure, and for changes in instrumentation or observing practices.

Some of these changes are documented in the station history files held by the Regional Observations Section. These history files are currently held as paper records, although more recent information is held electronically and there is an effort to digitise the older records.

Before the data can be used for the detection of change, a concerted effort will need to be made to identify deficiencies in the data, and then make compensations where possible. This is made more difficult by the lack of suitable comparison sites.

LINKS TO OTHER INDICATORS
SOE Indicators 1 - Monthly mean air temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations
SOE Indicators 2 - Monthly highest temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations
SOE Indicators 3 - Monthly lowest temperatures for Australian Antarctic Stations
SOE Indicators 4 - Monthly mean lower-stratospheric temperature above Australian Antarctic Stations
SOE Indicators 5 - Monthly mean mid-tropospheric temperature above Australian Antarctic Stations
SOE Indicators 38 - Mean sea level
SOE Indicators 62 - Water levels of Deep Lake, Vestfold Hills

Note - Station codes in the data are as follows:
300000 - Davis
300001 - Mawson
300004 - Macquarie Island
300005 - Atlas Cove, Heard Island
300017 - Casey
300028 - Spit Bay, Heard Island


The fields in this dataset are:
Mean MSL Pressure
Year
Month
Station
Station Code
Field
Value
Enough Observations
Number Observations

Related URL
Link: GET DATA
Description: Display Antarctic State of Environment Indicator 8


Link: GET DATA
Description: Download page for Australian Antarctic Data Centre


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset


Geographic Coverage
 N: -54.0 S: -69.0  E: 159.0  W: 61.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Barnes-Keoghan, I.
Dataset Title: Monthly mean atmospheric pressure for Australian Antarctic Stations
Dataset Series Name: CAASM Metadata
Dataset Release Date: 2001-04-26
Dataset Publisher: Australian Antarctic Data Centre
Online Resource: https://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/metadata_redirect.cfm?md=/AMD...


Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1948-04-01


Location Keywords
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > MACQUARIE ISLAND
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Casey
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Davis
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Mawson
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
VERTICAL LOCATION > BOUNDARY LAYER
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > HEARD AND MCDONALD ISLANDS


Data Resolution
Temporal Resolution: Monthly


Science Keywords
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE >SEA LEVEL PRESSURE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE >SURFACE PRESSURE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE


Platform
ARWS >Automatic Remote Weather Station    [Information]
WEATHER STATIONS    [Information]


Instrument
AWS >Automated Weather System    [Information]
BAROMETERS    [Information]
ANEROID PRESSURE SENSOR


Quality
Mean monthly atmospheric pressure is calculated from all the available 3-hourly observations made during a given month. Each three-hourly air pressure observation is 'reduced' to the equivalent value at mean sea level, using an algorithm embedded in the AWS. If less than 200 observations are present for that month, the monthly value is flagged and removed from the State of Environment dataset.

The monthly atmospheric pressure anomaly is calculated as the difference between the mean atmospheric pressure for a given month and the long-term mean atmospheric pressure for that calendar month between 1971 and 2000, so that:

Anomaly (for given month) = Value (for given month) - Long-term Mean (for relevant calendar month)

Although the Bureau of Meteorology uses the period from 1961 to 1990 as the standard period for calculation of long-term means, it was decided that for Antarctic stations, the 1971-2000 dataset was in most cases more complete, and would therefore provide a more accurate long-term mean.

These records require analysis for variability and trends. However, there are likely to be significant errors in the data, and these need to be addressed first (see Research Issues).

With regard to Heard Island, unfortunately, the two AWS are not 'normal' ones (they are actually ocean drifting buoys that have been strapped down). They do provide temperature and pressure, but not wind or daily maximum and minimum temps. Also, they do not report to a fixed, regular schedule, instead sending when they are within the satellite footprint. The system set up for the other sites assumes the regular 3-hourly schedule. The irregularity of the Heard data could cause curious biases, which have not been explored. Also, the criteria used to flag that there are 'enough' data (greater than 200 obs in the month) may not really work with these more frequent, and irregular, reporting schedules.

Heard Island (Atlas Cove)
WMO number: 95997
Elevation: 3 m
Barometer elevation: 3.5 m

Heard Island (The Spit)
WMO number: 94997
Elevation: 12 m
Barometer elevation: 12.5 m


Access Constraints
Data arising from this project are available from the state of the environment indicator URL given below.


Use Constraints
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=SOE_air_... when using these data.


Keywords
ENOUGH OBSERVATIONS
FIELD
MEAN MSL PRESSURE
MEAN SEA LEVEL
MONTH
NUMBER OBSERVATIONS
PRESSURE
STATION
STATION LEVEL
SURFACE
VALUE
YEAR


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
Bureau of Meteorology


Data Center
Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://data.aad.gov.au

Data Center Personnel
Name: DATA OFFICER AADC
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: metadata at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia


Bureau of Meteorology, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/

Data Center Personnel
Name: CLIMATE SERVICES
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


Tasmanian-Antarctica Regional Office, Bureau of Meteorology, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/weather/tas/

Data Center Personnel
Name: CLIMATE SERVICES
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia



Distribution
Distribution_Media: HTTP
Fees: Free


Personnel
CLIMATE SERVICES
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Role: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


REGIONAL OBSERVATIONS SECTION
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +61 3 6221 2071
Fax: (via) +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Regional Observations Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


IAN BARNES-KEOGAHN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: I.Barnes-Keogahn at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


Publications/References
CSIRO (2001), Climate Change Projections for Australia., Climate Impact Group, 8, CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne

IAWG (2001), Climate Change Impacts for Australia., CSIRO Impacts and Adaptation Working Group., 8, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Aitkenvale

White, W.B. and Peterson, R.G. (1996), An Antarctic Circumpolar Wave in Surface Pressure, Wind, Temperature and Sea-Ice Extent., Nature, 380, 699-702

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2001-04-26
Last DIF Revision Date: 2016-01-27



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