Monthly lowest air temperatures for Australian Antarctic stations.
Entry ID: SOE_monthly_min_temp

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Summary
Abstract: INDICATOR DEFINITION
Monthly lowest temperatures obtained from observed daily minimum temperatures for Australian Antarctic stations Casey, Davis, Mawson and Macquarie Island.

TYPE OF INDICATOR
There are three types of indicators used in this report:
1.Describes the CONDITION of important elements of a system;
2.Show the extent of the major PRESSURES exerted on a system;
3.Determine RESPONSES to either condition or changes in the condition of a system.

This indicator is one of: CONDITION

RATIONALE FOR INDICATOR SELECTION
Global climate models show warming in response to increased greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, methane etc) concentrations in the atmosphere; this is called the 'enhanced greenhouse effect'. Because of this, there is interest in observations of temperature across the globe, including Antarctica. Extensive high-quality observations from fixed locations are essential to serve as direct indicators of temperature changes and also confirm climate model output.

DESIGN AND STRATEGY FOR INDICATOR MONITORING PROGRAM
Spatial Scale: Australian Antarctic stations: Casey (lat 66 degrees 16' 54.5" S, long 110 degrees 31' 39.4" E), Davis (lat 68 degrees 34' 35.8" S, long 77 degrees 58' 02.6" E), Mawson (lat 67 degrees 36' 09.7" S, long 62 degrees 52' 25.7" E) and Macquarie Island (lat 54 degrees 37' 59.9" S, long 158 degrees 52' 59.9" E).

Temporal scale: Monthly.

Measurement Technique: Thermometry.

RESEARCH ISSUES
There is need to develop a high-quality data set from the available data, correcting erroneous data and estimating missing data. Adjustment may be necessary for changes in site location or exposure, and for changes in instrumentation or observing practices.

Some of these changes are documented in the station history files held by the Regional Observations Section. These history files are currently held as paper records, although more recent information is held electronically and there is an effort to digitise the older records.

Before the data can be used for the detection of change, a concerted effort will need to be made to identify deficiencies in the data, and then make compensations where possible. This is made more difficult by the lack of suitable comparison sites.

LINKS TO OTHER INDICATORS
SOE Indicators 1 - Monthly mean air temperatures for Australian Antarctic stations
SOE Indicators 2 - Monthly highest air temperatures for Australian Antarctic stations
SOE Indicators 4 - Monthly mean of daily radiosonde temperatures at the 100hPa level (deg C)
SOE Indicators 5 - Monthly mean of daily radiosonde temperatures at the 500hPa level (deg C)
SOE Indicators 6 - Daily mean 10m Firn Temperatures at AWS sites in the AAT (deg C)
SOE Indicators 8 - Monthly mean of three-hourly mean sea level pressures (hPa)
SOE Indicators 11 - Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gas species
SOE Indicators 14 - Midwinter atmospheric temperature at altitude 87km
SOE Indicators 16 - Extent of summer surface glacial melt (sq km)
SOE Indicators 42 - Antarctic sea ice extent and concentration
SOE Indicators 43 - Fast ice thickness at Davis and Mawson
SOE Indicators 56 - Monthly fuel usage of the generator sets and boilers
SOE Indicators 59 - Monthly electricity usage

Note - Station codes in the data are as follows:
300000 - Davis
300001 - Mawson
300004 - Macquarie Island
300017 - Casey

The fields in this dataset are:
Temperature
Lowest Air Temperature
Year
Month
Station
Station Code
Field
Value
Enough Observations
Number Observations

Related URL
Link: GET DATA
Description: Display Antarctic State of Environment Indicator 3


Link: GET DATA
Description: Download page for Australian Antarctic Data Centre


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset


Geographic Coverage
 N: -54.0 S: -69.0  E: 159.0  W: 61.0

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1948-04-01


Location Keywords
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Casey
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Davis
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Mawson
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
VERTICAL LOCATION > BOUNDARY LAYER


Data Resolution
Temporal Resolution: Monthly


Science Keywords
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE >AIR TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE >MAXIMUM/MINIMUM TEMPERATURE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE


Platform
ARWS >Automatic Remote Weather Station    [Information]
WEATHER STATIONS    [Information]


Instrument
AWS >Automated Weather System    [Information]
TEMPERATURE SENSORS    [Information]
Thermometers    [Information]


Quality
Lowest monthly temperatures are obtained by taking the lowest of the observed minimum temperatures for individual days of a given month. The daily minima are currently derived from temperature sensors sampling at 1 second intervals. If less than 25 days are available in any month, the monthly figure is flagged and removed from the State of Environment dataset.

The monthly air temperature anomaly is calculated as the difference between the lowest air temperature for a given month and the long-term mean lowest air temperature for that calendar month between 1971 and 2000, so that:

Anomaly (for given month) = Value (for given month) - Long-term Mean (for relevant calendar month)

Although the Bureau of Meteorology uses the period from 1961 to 1990 as the standard period for calculation of long-term means, it was decided that for Antarctic stations, the 1971-2000 dataset was in most cases more complete, and would therefore provide a more accurate long-term mean.

These records require analysis for variability and trends. However, there are likely to be significant errors in the data, and these need to be addressed first (see Research Issues).


Access Constraints
Data arising from this project are available from the state of the environment indicator URL given below.


Use Constraints
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=SOE_mont... when using these data.


Keywords
ENOUGH
EXTREMES
FIELD
LOWEST AIR TEMPERATURE
MAXIMUM
MINIMUM
MONTH
NBR OBS
STATION
SURFACE
TEMPERATURE
VALUE
YEAR


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
Bureau of Meteorology


Data Center
Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://data.aad.gov.au

Data Center Personnel
Name: DATA OFFICER AADC
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: metadata at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia


Bureau of Meteorology, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/

Data Center Personnel
Name: CLIMATE SERVICES
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


Tasmanian-Antarctica Regional Office, Bureau of Meteorology, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/weather/tas/

Data Center Personnel
Name: CLIMATE SERVICES
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia



Distribution
Distribution_Media: HTTP
Fees: Free


Personnel
CLIMATE SERVICES
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Role: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


REGIONAL OBSERVATIONS SECTION
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +61 3 6221 2071
Fax: (via) +61 3 6221 2045
Email: climate.tas at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Regional Observations Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


IAN BARNES-KEOGAHN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +61 3 6221 2043
Fax: +61 3 6221 2045
Email: I.Barnes-Keogahn at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Climate and Consultancy Section
GPO Box 727
Bureau of Meteorology
Tasmania and Antarctica Regional Office
City: Hobart
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Country: Australia


Publications/References
CSIRO (2001), Climate Change Projections for Australia. Climate Impact Group, CSIRO Atmospheric Research, 8, Melbourne

IAWG (2001), Climate Change Impacts for Australia. CSIRO Impacts and Adaptation Working Group., CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, 8, Aitkenvale

White, W.B. and Peterson, R.G. (1996), An Antarctic Circumpolar Wave in Surface Pressure, Wind, Temperature and Sea-Ice Extent., Nature, 380, 699-702

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2001-04-23
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-09-12

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