Monthly means of total column ozone over Macquarie Island
Entry ID: SOE_ozone

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Summary
Abstract: INDICATOR DEFINITION
The monthly means of total column ozone measured at Macquarie Island.

TYPE OF INDICATOR
There are three types of indicators used in this report:
1.Describes the CONDITION of important elements of a system;
2.Show the extent of the major PRESSURES exerted on a system;
3.Determine RESPONSES to either condition or changes in the condition of a system.

This indicator is one of: CONDITION

RATIONALE FOR INDICATOR SELECTION
Ozone filters ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the Sun and affects the dynamics of the stratosphere and overall atmospheric radiation balance. With reduction in stratospheric ozone levels, UV incidence on the surface has serious ramifications for Antarctic and Southern Ocean biological systems.

DESIGN AND STRATEGY FOR INDICATOR MONITORING PROGRAM
Spatial Scale: Macquarie Island (lat 54deg 29' 59"S, long 158deg 57' 08"E).

Frequency: Annual report on monthly means of daily figures.

Measurement Technique: Global-scale daily analyses are produced by the Bureau of Meteorology on a 2.5 - degree latitude by 2.5 - degree longitude grid, using satellite data. In situ Dobson spectrophotometer measurements at Macquarie Island in conjunction with major centres in Australia provide benchmark and calibration data of total-column ozone.

Macquarie Island is the only station situated under the Antarctic Ozone hole, providing an important contribution to ozone monitoring activities.

RESEARCH ISSUES
The traceable data set may be extended back a few years before 1978 but cannot go much further back with any confidence.

When Dobson measurements began seriously in 1955, there was no traceability of instrument standards. Each instrument was calibrated absolutely rather than by the hierarchy of standards, beginning in 1978. In the initial measurement program, ozone measurements were used mainly for day-to-day variations - the idea of using Dobsons for a long-term trend in ozone was not an objective. Consequently the need for properly referenced instruments was not a high priority. The difficult mechanism of applying standards was not in place when measurements started in 1956.

LINKS TO OTHER INDICATORS
SOE Indicator 10 - Daily broad-band ultra-violet radiation observations using biologically effective UVR detectors
SOE Indicator 13 - Polar stratospheric cloud observations at Davis

Related URL
Link: GET DATA
Description: Display Antarctic State of Environment Indicator 9


Link: GET DATA
Description: Download page for Australian Antarctic Data Centre


Link: GET SERVICE
Description: Daily TOMS column ozone amounts are available from NASA


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset


Geographic Coverage
 N: -54.0 S: -54.0  E: 159.0  W: 158.0

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1996-09-30
Stop Date: 1998-03-31


Location Keywords
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > MACQUARIE ISLAND
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY >OXYGEN COMPOUNDS >OZONE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE


Quality
Because stratospheric ozone at any time is determined largely by meteorological transport forcing conditions (rather than by chemistry constraints), this indicator is expected to have substantial interannual variability, and care is needed in its interpretation.

Trends in ozone will be analysed for signs of the success of the Montreal Protocol in phasing out ozone depleting substances (ODSs). However, the life-time of ODSs in the atmosphere is in the order of decades, and so the global concentration of ozone is expected to continue to fall until after the turn of the 20th century. Full recovery of the ozone layer will require some decades beyond the time that the supply and emission of ODSs is stopped (Fraser 1997). Values provided in temporal coverage are approximate only.


Access Constraints
These data are publicly available for download from the URL given below.


Use Constraints
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=SOE_ozone when using these data.


Keywords
MACQUARIE ISLAND
OZONE
STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT
TOTAL COLUMN OZONE


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
Bureau of Meteorology


Data Center
Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://data.aad.gov.au

Data Center Personnel
Name: DATA OFFICER AADC
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: metadata at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia


World Data Center for Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation, Toronto    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.woudc.org/

Data Center Personnel
Name: WOUDC
Phone: +1 416 739 4635
Fax: +1 416 739 4281
Email: woudc at ec.gc.ca
Contact Address:
World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre
Meteorological Service of Canada
4905 Dufferin Street
City: Toronto
Province or State: Ontario
Postal Code: M3H 5T4
Country: Canada



Distribution
Distribution_Media: HTTP
Fees: Free


Personnel
JIM EASSON
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +61 3 9669 4238
Fax: +61 3 9669 4736
Email: j.easson at bom.gov.au
Contact Address:
Ozone Monitoring Unit
Atmosphere Watch Section
GPO Box 1289K
Bureau of Meteorology
City: Melbourne
Province or State: Victoria
Postal Code: 3001
Country: Australia


Publications/References
Fraser, P. (1997), Chemistry of Stratospheric Ozone and Ozone Depletion, Aust. Meteor. Mag., 46, 185-193

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2001-09-17
Last DIF Revision Date: 2012-11-15

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