Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet
Entry ID: NSIDC-0052

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Summary
Abstract: The Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet CD-ROM combines the most detailed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image mosaic available with the best current digital elevation model. The mosaic image shows both the location of the ice edge and the distribution of melt-related 'scatterers' on the surface. These scatterers include ice lenses and complex layered structure in the percolation zone and bare ice of the ablation zone. Other melt-related features that can be seen include lake and surface meltwater stream channels at lower elevations, as well as ice-marginal lakes. This characterization of the ice sheet provides a reference against which future change can be measured. Changing conditions resulting from climatic variation should show up as changes in the ice margin and shifts in the hydrologic zones. It is hoped that the standard reference provided by this data set can facilitate activities aimed at change detection and promote other work aimed at understanding the processes operating on the ice sheet. The image data are derived from SAR image swaths acquired by the ERS-1 satellite during August of 1992. The mosaic was assembled at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Its component images are a copyrighted product of the European Space Agency. The mosaic, a value-added derived product, is available to individuals and non-profit organizations for research oriented purposes only. The Danish geodetic and cadastral agency Kort-og Matrikelstyrelsen (KMS) compiled the elevation data provided with the product from a number of sources, including field surveys, aerial photographs, and the ERS-1 radar altimeter. The elevation data are also provided only to individuals and non-profit organizations for research oriented purposes. Included with the data is NSIDC's limb (large image map browser) software, which was developed in-house and allows UNIX users to easily select and view portions of the mosaic image with elevation contours derived from the elevation data overlain. Limb is provided as 'freeware' for general use. NSIDC distributes the Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet on CD-ROM at no charge.

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Link: GET DATA > ECHO
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Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: Online documentation.


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: Research agreement that prospective users of the product are required to complete stating that the image and elevation data will be only be used under the specified terms and conditions.


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Polar Ice Sheet DEMs and Elevation Data


Geographic Coverage
 N: 84.0 S: 60.0  E: -10.0  W: -73.0
 Min Altitude: 0 METERS  Max Altitude: 3251.4 METERS

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Fahnestock, Mark, Simon Ekholm, Kenneth Knowles, Ron Kwok, Ted Scambos
Dataset Title: Digital SAR Mosaic and Elevation Map of the Greenland Ice Sheet
Dataset Release Date: 1997-01-01
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0052.html


Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1991-01-01
Stop Date: 1995-12-31

Start Date: 1992-08-02
Stop Date: 1992-09-09


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > GREENLAND
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > ARCTIC


Data Resolution
Latitude Resolution: 100 m
Longitude Resolution: 100 m
Latitude Resolution: 2 km
Longitude Resolution: 2 km
Vertical Resolution: 13 m


Science Keywords
CRYOSPHERE >GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS >GLACIER ELEVATION/ICE SHEET ELEVATION    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS >GLACIER TOPOGRAPHY/ICE SHEET TOPOGRAPHY    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS >ICE SHEETS    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >ICE EDGES    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >ICE EDGES    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >RADAR >RADAR BACKSCATTER    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >RADAR >RADAR CROSS-SECTION    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >RADAR >RADAR IMAGERY    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >RADAR >RADAR REFLECTIVITY    [Definition]
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING >RADAR >RETURN POWER    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS >GLACIER ELEVATION/ICE SHEET ELEVATION    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS >GLACIER TOPOGRAPHY/ICE SHEET TOPOGRAPHY    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >GLACIERS/ICE SHEETS >ICE SHEETS    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
ELEVATION
GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
IMAGERY/BASE MAPS/EARTH COVER
INLAND WATERS


Platform
ERS-1 >European Remote Sensing Satellite-1    [Information]
GEOSAT >Geodetic Satellite    [Information]


Instrument
Radar Altimeters    [Information]
SAR >Synthetic Aperture Radar    [Information]
VISUAL OBSERVATIONS    [Information]


Project
EOSDIS >Earth Observing System Data Information System    [Information]
ESIP >Earth Science Information Partners Program    [Information]


Quality
The accuracy and precision of the DEM is not adequate for the detection of real ice surface elevation changes over time, and thus the DEM should not be used for such purposes. Additional processing would be necessary before the DEM could be used as part of a scheme for elevation change detection.


Access Constraints
This data set is available for non-profit, research-oriented purposes only. Prospective users of the product are required to complete a Research Agreement stating that the image and elevation data will be only be used under the specified terms and conditions.


Use Constraints
For non-profit, research-oriented purposes only.


Data Set Progress
COMPLETE


Originating Center
NSIDC


Data Center
NSIDC Distributed Active Archive Center    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/daac/index.html

Data Center Personnel
Name: NSIDC USER SERVICES
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


National Snow and Ice Data Center    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel
Name: NSIDC USER SERVICES
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA



Distribution
Distribution_Media: CD-ROM
Distribution_Format: Binary


Personnel
NSIDC USER SERVICES
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


MARK FAHNESTOCK
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 907-474-5970
Email: fahnestock at gi.alaska.edu
Contact Address:
Geophysical Institute/University of New Hampshire
903 Koyukuk Drive
City: Fairbanks
Province or State: AK
Postal Code: 99775
Country: USA


SIMON EKHOLM
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:
Kort-og Matrikelstyrelsen
(KMS, National Survey and Cadastre)
City: Copenhagen
Country: Denmark


KENNETH W. KNOWLES
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 303-492-6199
Fax: 303-492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


RON KWOK
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: (818) 354-5614
Fax: (818) 393-3077
Email: ron.kwok at jpl.nasa.gov
Contact Address:
4800 Oak Grove Dr M/S: 300-331
City: Pasadena
Province or State: CA
Postal Code: 91109
Country: United States


TED SCAMBOS
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 303 492 1113
Email: teds at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


MIKE MESHEK
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 303-492-4549
Fax: 303-492-2468
Email: writers at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
Campus Box 449
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


Publications/References
Andersen, Ole Baltazar. 1994. ERS-1 altimetry on the Greenland ice sheet: Preliminary investigations of annual variations. Geophysical Research Letters 21(15):1655-1658.

Binschadler, R. A., and P. L. Vornberger. 1993. Interpretation of SAR imagery of the Greenland ice sheet using coregistered TM imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment 167-175.

Ekholm, S. 1996. A full coverage, high-resolution topographic model of Greenland computed from a variety of digital elevation data. Journal of Geophysical Research 101(B10):21961-21972.

Ekholm, S., R. Forsberg, and J. M. Brozena. 1995. Accuracy of satellite altimeter elevations over the Greenland ice sheet. Journal of Geophysical Research 100(C2):2687-2696.

Fahnestock, M. A., and R. A. Bindschadler. 1993. Description of a program for SAR investigation of the Greenland ice sheet and an example of margin change detection using SAR. Annals of Glaciology 39(131): 119-132.

Fahnestock, M., R. Bindschadler, R. Kwok, and K. Jezek. 1993. Greenland ice sheet surface properties and ice dynamics from ERS-1 SAR imagery. Science 262:1530-1534.

Fahnestock, M., R. Bindschadler, R. Kwok, and K. Jezek. 1993. Greenland ice sheet surface properties and ice dynamics from ERS-1 SAR imagery.Science 262: 1525-1530.

Jezek, K. C., and S. Grace. 1991. Synthetic Aperture Radar observations of the Greenland ice sheet. EOS Suppl., p. 150.

Jezek, K. C. 1992. Spatial patterns in radar backscatter strength across the Greenland ice sheet. EOS Suppl., p. 181.

Jezek, K. C., and S. P. Gogineni. 1992. Microwave remote sensing of the Greenland ice sheet. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Newsletter 9:6-10.

Jezek, K. C., M. R. Drinkwater, J. P. Crawford, R. Bindschadler, and R. Kwok. 1993. Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar data collected over the southwestern Greenland ice sheet. Journal of Glaciology 39(131): 115-132.

Jezek, K. C., P. Gogineni, and M. Chanableh. 1994. Radar measurements of melt zones on the Greenland ice sheet. Geophysical Research Letters 21(1): 33-36.

Knowles, K. 1992. Points, Pixels, Grids, and Cells: A Mapping and Gridding Primer. Unpublished report to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO.

Rignot, E. J., S. J. Austria, J. J. V. Zyl, and K. C. Jezek. 1993. Unusual radar echoes from the Greenland ice sheet. Science 261:1710-1713.

Rignot, E., J. V. Zyl, S. Ostro, and K. C. Jezek. 1993. Unusual radar echoes from the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. EOS Suppl., p. 247.

Rignot, E. 1995. Backscatter model for the unusual radar properties of the Greenland ice sheet. Journal of Geophysical Research 100(E5): 9389-9400.

Simonett, D. S., F. T. Ulaby, J. E. Estes, and G. A. Thorley, eds. 1983. Manual of remote sensing, Falls Church, Virginia: American Society of Photogrammetry.

Vornberger, P. L., and R. A. Bindschadler. 1992. Multi-spectral analysis of ice sheets using co-registered SAR and TM imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing 13(4): 637-645.

Zwally, R. A. Bindschadler, A. C. Brenner, and R. H. Thomas. 1983. Surface elevation contours of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Journal of Geophysical Research 88: 1589-1596.

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 1997-01-01
Last DIF Revision Date: 2013-08-14

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