Sea Ice Index
Entry ID: G02135

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Summary
Abstract: The Sea Ice Index provides a quick look at Arctic- and Antarctic-wide changes in sea ice. It is a source for consistent, up-to-date sea ice extent and concentration images and data values from November 1978 to the present. Sea Ice Index images depict ice cover and trends in ice cover in the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. Sea Ice Index data files tabulate ice extent in numbers. The images and data are produced in a consistent way that makes the Index time-series appropriate for use when looking at long-term trends in sea ice cover. Both monthly and daily products are available. However, monthly products are better to use for long-term trend analysis because errors in the daily product tend to be averaged out in the monthly product and because day-to-day variations are often the result of short-term weather. Monthly images show sea ice extent with an outline of the median extent for that month for comparison. Other monthly images show sea ice concentration as well as trends in concentration for that month. Monthly extent products are also available as geographic information systems (GIS) compatible shapefiles. Plain ASCII text data files contain monthly mean extent and area, in millions of square kilometers, by year. These monthly extent numbers are used for graphs of extent anomalies with trend lines and significance intervals. Anomalies and median extent are calculated using a 30-year reference period of 1981 through 2010. Daily images show sea ice extent, with an outline of the median extent for that day for comparison, and sea ice concentration. Plain ASCII text data files contain daily extent, in millions of square kilometers, for almost every day from 1978 onward. These daily extent numbers are used for graphs of daily extent over the last four months.

Related URL
Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: Sea Ice Data at NSIDC


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: Sea Ice Products at NSIDC


Geographic Coverage
 N: 90.0 S: 30.98  E: 180.0  W: -180.0
 N: -39.23 S: -90.0  E: 180.0  W: -180.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. Meier, and M. Savoie.
Dataset Title: Sea Ice Index
Dataset Release Date: 2002-12-05
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Version: 1
Dataset DOI: doi:10.7265/N5QJ7F7W
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/G02135


Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1979-01-01


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > ARCTIC
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >ICE EXTENT    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >ICE EXTENT    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >ICE GROWTH/MELT    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >ICE GROWTH/MELT    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >REFLECTANCE    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >REFLECTANCE    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >SEA ICE CONCENTRATION    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >SEA ICE CONCENTRATION    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
OCEANS


Platform
DMSP >Defense Meteorological Satellite Program    [Information]
DMSP 5D-3/F17 >Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F17    [Information]
NIMBUS-7    [Information]
SATELLITES    [Information]


Instrument
SMMR >Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer    [Information]
SSMIS >Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder    [Information]
SSMI >Special Sensor Microwave/Imager    [Information]


Keywords
NOAA
Sea Ice
Sea Ice Anomalies
Sea Ice Conditions
Sea Ice Trends


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
NSIDC_NOAA


Data Center
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at the National Snow and Ice Data Center    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/

Data Center Personnel
Name: NSIDC NOAA USER SERVICES
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


National Snow and Ice Data Center    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel
Name: NSIDC USER SERVICES
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA



Distribution
Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Format: PNG

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Format: ESRI Shapefiles (.shp, .shx, .dbf, and .prj)

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Format: ASCII Text (.txt)


Personnel
FLORENCE FETTERER
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: fetterer at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


KENNETH W. KNOWLES
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 303-492-6199
Fax: 303-492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


WALT MEIER
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Email: walt at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309
Country: USA


MATTHEW H. SAVOIE
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 303-492-5692
Email: savoie at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
University of Colorado
CIRES, 449 UCB
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


NSIDC USER SERVICES
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


Publications/References
Agnew, T. A., and S. Howell. 2002a. The use of operational i ce charts for evaluating passive microwave ice concentration data. Internal Report of the Meteorological Service of Canada. 34 pp. Agnew, T. A., and S. Howell. 2002b. Comparison of digitized Canadian ice charts and passive microwave sea-ice concentrations. Procedures of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, July 24-28. Toronto: Canada. Cavalieri, D.J., P. Gloersen and W. J. Campbell. 1984. Determination of sea ice parameters with the NIMBUS-7 SMMR. Journal of Geophysical Research 89 (D4): 5355-5369. Cavalieri, D.J., K.M. St. Germain and C.T. Swift. 1995. Reduction of weather effects in the calculation of sea ice concentration with the DMSP SSM/I. Journal of Glaciology 41: 455-464. Cavalieri, D., P. Gloerson, and J. Zwally. 1990. DMSP SSM/I daily polar gridded sea ice concentrations. Edited by J. Maslanik and J. Stroeve. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Cavalieri, D., C. Parkinson, P. Gloerson, and H.J. Zwally. 1997, updated 2005. Sea ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I passive microwave data, June to September 2001. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media and CD-ROM. Cavalieri, D., P. Gloerson, and J. Zwally. 2002, updated daily. Near Real-Time DMSP SSM/I Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations. Edited by J. Maslanik and J. Stroeve. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. Comiso, J. C., and R. Kwok. 1996. Surface and radiative characteristics of the summer arctic sea ice cover from multi-sensor satellite observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 101 (C12): 28, 397-28, 416. Comiso, J. C., and K. Steffen. 2001. Studies of Antarctic sea ice concentrations from satellite data and their applications. Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (C12): 31, 361-31, 386. Emery, W. J., C. Fowler, and J. Maslanik. 1994. Arctic sea ice concentration from Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research 99: 18,329-18,342. Eppler, D.T., L.D. Farmer, A.W. Lohanick, M.A. Anderson, D. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, P. Gloersen, C. Garrity, T.C. Grenfell, M. Hallikainen, J.A. Maslanik, C. Mätzler, R.A. Melloh, I. Rubinstein, and C.T. Swift. 1992. Passive microwave signatures of sea ice. In Microwave remote sensing of sea ice. Edited by F.D. Carsey. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. 47-71. Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner. 1998. Observations of melt ponds on arctic sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (C11): 24,821-24,835. Hollinger, J.P., J.L. Peirce, and G.A. Poe. 1990. SSM/I Instrument Evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 28 (5): 781-790. Kwok, R. 2002. Sea ice concentration estimates from satellite passive microwave radiometry and openings from SAR ice motion. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (9): 10.1029/202GL014787. Markus, T., and S. T. Dokken. 2002. Evaluation of late summer passive microwave arctic sea ice retrievals. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 40 (2): 348-356. Meier, W. N., M .L. V. Woert, and C. Bertoia. 2001. Evaluation of operational SSM/I algorithms. Annals of Glaciology 33: 102-108. Meier, W. N. 2005. Comparison of passive microwave retrievals with AVHRR imagery in arctic peripheral seas. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 43 (6): 1324-1337. Parkinson, C.L., D.J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, H.J. Zwally, and J.C. Comiso. 1999. Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978-1996. Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (C9): 20,837-20,856. Partington, K., T. Flynn, D. Lamb, C. Bertoia, and K. Dedrick. 2003. Late twentieth century Northern Hemisphere sea-ice record from U.S. National Ice Center ice charts. J. Geophys. Res. 108(C11): 3343. doi:10.1029/2002JC001623. Steffen, K., and A. Schweiger. 1991. NASA team algorithm for sea ice concentration retrieval from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave Imager: comparison with Landsat satellite imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research 96 (C12): 21,971-21,987. Steffen, K., J. Key, D. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, P. Gloersen, K.S. Germain, and I. Rubinstein. 1992. The estimation of geophysical parameters using passive microwave algorithms in microwave remote sensing of sea ice. Edited by F.D. Carsey. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. 201-231.

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2002-12-05
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-04-21

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