Sea Ice Index
Entry ID: G02135

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Summary
Abstract: This data set contains time series of monthly snow cover extent (SCE) for North America, Eurasia, and the Northern Hemisphere from 1915 to 1997, based on snow cover reconstruction and NOAA satellite data. The reconstruction method used in situ snow depth and daily climate data from the U.S.A., Canada, China, and the former Soviet Union to generate a monthly snow cover index, which was found to be closely related to satellite-derived estimates of SCE in certain months. Brown (2000) describes the method, which is considered to be more robust than SCE reconstruction based on statistical methods (see Brown, 1997; Frei et al., 1999). In addition, the data set contains time series of annual variation in areally-averaged monthly snow depth and (SWE) for the North American grid domain used to derive the snow cover index. These provide additional insights into secular changes in snow cover over North America since SCE and depth variations are not always positively correlated. Data are available via FTP.

Related URL
Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: Sea Ice Data at NSIDC


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: Sea Ice Products at NSIDC


Geographic Coverage
 N: -39.23 S: -90.0  E: 180.0  W: -180.0
 N: 90.0 S: 30.98  E: 180.0  W: -180.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. Meier, and M. Savoie.
Dataset Title: Sea Ice Index
Dataset Release Date: 2002-12-05 updated 2009
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Dataset DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5QJ7F7W
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/g02135.html


Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1979-01-01


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > ARCTIC
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >ICE EXTENT    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >ICE GROWTH/MELT    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >REFLECTANCE    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >SEA ICE CONCENTRATION    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >ICE EXTENT    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >ICE GROWTH/MELT    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >REFLECTANCE    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >SEA ICE CONCENTRATION    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
OCEANS


Platform
DMSP >Defense Meteorological Satellite Program    [Information]
NIMBUS-7    [Information]
SATELLITES    [Information]


Instrument
SMMR >Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer    [Information]


Keywords
NOAA
Sea Ice
Sea Ice Anomalies
Sea Ice Conditions
Sea Ice Trends


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
NSIDC_NOAA


Data Center
National Snow and Ice Data Center    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel
Name: NSIDC USER SERVICES
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at the National Snow and Ice Data Center    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/

Data Center Personnel
Name: NSIDC NOAA USER SERVICES
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA



Distribution
Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Format: ASCII Text

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Format: ESRI Shapefiles

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Format: PNG


Personnel
FLORENCE FETTERER
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: fetterer at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


KENNETH W. KNOWLES
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 303-492-6199
Fax: 303-492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


WALT MEIER
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Email: walt at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309
Country: USA


MATTHEW H. SAVOIE
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 303-492-5692
Email: savoie at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
University of Colorado
CIRES, 449 UCB
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


NSIDC USER SERVICES
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


Publications/References
Agnew, T. A., and S. Howell. 2002a. The use of operational ice charts for evaluating passive microwave ice concentration data. Internal Report of the Meteorological Service of Canada. 34 pp.

Agnew, T. A., and S. Howell. 2002b. Comparison of digitized Canadian ice charts and passive microwave sea-ice concentrations. Procedures of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, July 24-28. Toronto: Canada.

Cavalieri, D.J., P. Gloersen and W. J. Campbell. 1984. Determination of sea ice parameters with the NIMBUS-7 SMMR. Journal of Geophysical Research 89 (D4): 5355-5369.

Cavalieri, D.J., K.M. St. Germain and C.T. Swift. 1995. Reduction of weather effects in the calculation of sea ice concentration with the DMSP SSM/I. Journal of Glaciology 41: 455-464.

Cavalieri, D., P. Gloerson, and J. Zwally. 1990. DMSP SSM/I daily polar gridded sea ice concentrations. Edited by J. Maslanik and J. Stroeve. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

Cavalieri, D., C. Parkinson, P. Gloerson, and H.J. Zwally. 1997, updated 2005. Sea ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I passive microwave data, June to September 2001. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media and CD-ROM.

Cavalieri, D., P. Gloerson, and J. Zwally. 2002, updated daily. Near Real-Time DMSP SSM/I Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations. Edited by J. Maslanik and J. Stroeve. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

Comiso, J. C., and R. Kwok. 1996. Surface and radiative characteristics of the summer arctic sea ice cover from multi-sensor satellite observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 101 (C12): 28, 397-28, 416.

Comiso, J. C., and K. Steffen. 2001. Studies of Antarctic sea ice concentrations from satellite data and their applications. Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (C12): 31, 361-31, 386.

Emery, W. J., C. Fowler, and J. Maslanik. 1994. Arctic sea ice concentration from Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research 99: 18,329-18,342.

Eppler, D.T., L.D. Farmer, A.W. Lohanick, M.A. Anderson, D. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, P. Gloersen, C. Garrity, T.C. Grenfell, M. Hallikainen, J.A. Maslanik, C. Mätzler, R.A. Melloh, I. Rubinstein, and C.T. Swift. 1992. Passive microwave signatures of sea ice. In Microwave remote sensing of sea ice. Edited by F.D. Carsey. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. 47-71.

Fetterer, F., and N. Untersteiner. 1998. Observations of melt ponds on arctic sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (C11): 24,821-24,835.

Hollinger, J.P., J.L. Peirce, and G.A. Poe. 1990. SSM/I Instrument Evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 28 (5): 781-790.

Kwok, R. 2002. Sea ice concentration estimates from satellite passive microwave radiometry and openings from SAR ice motion. Geophysical Research Letters 29 (9): 10.1029/202GL014787.

Markus, T., and S. T. Dokken. 2002. Evaluation of late summer passive microwave arctic sea ice retrievals. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 40 (2): 348-356.

Meier, W. N., M .L. V. Woert, and C. Bertoia. 2001. Evaluation of operational SSM/I algorithms. Annals of Glaciology 33: 102-108.

Meier, W. N. 2005. Comparison of passive microwave retrievals with AVHRR imagery in arctic peripheral seas. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 43 (6): 1324-1337.

Parkinson, C.L., D.J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, H.J. Zwally, and J.C. Comiso. 1999. Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978-1996. Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (C9): 20,837-20,856.

Partington, K., T. Flynn, D. Lamb, C. Bertoia, and K. Dedrick. 2003. Late twentieth century Northern Hemisphere sea-ice record from U.S. National Ice Center ice charts. J. Geophys. Res. 108(C11): 3343. doi:10.1029/2002JC001623.

Steffen, K., and A. Schweiger. 1991. NASA team algorithm for sea ice concentration retrieval from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave Imager: comparison with Landsat satellite imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research 96 (C12): 21,971-21,987.

Steffen, K., J. Key, D. Cavalieri, J. Comiso, P. Gloersen, K.S. Germain, and I. Rubinstein. 1992. The estimation of geophysical parameters using passive microwave algorithms in microwave remote sensing of sea ice. Edited by F.D. Carsey. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. 201-231.

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2002-12-05
Last DIF Revision Date: 2013-07-29

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