Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic - Argo Floats
Entry ID: SIMBA_Argo_Floats

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Summary
Abstract: Argo profiling floats were deployed during the SIMBA cruise. A total of 23 floats were deployed along the cruise track from Punta Arenas to the Bellingshausen Sea. These floats drifted at a depth of 1000 meters; at 10-day intervals, each float sank to a depth of 2000 m and then ascended to the sea surface over a period of approximately 6 hours, collecting a CTD profile as it ascended. Many of the floats were also equipped with dissolved oxygen sensors. Once on the sea surface, the floats transmitted their data to a satellite and descended again to 1000 m to begin another 10-day cycle.

Each float was capable of collecting 200 or more profiles in this manner. The floats were equipped with ice-avoidance software in order to decrease the probability that they could be crushed by drifting ice while transmitting on the sea surface. As the floats ascended between depths of 50 and 30 meters, they examined the median temperature in this depth range; if the temperature was below a critical temperature that was indicative of ice cover above (chosen to be -1.77°C), the float turn off its buoyancy pump in order to stop its ascent. In such a case, the float decelerated and then stopped at a depth of about 3 meters; the float then stored the data collected and descended back to 1000 m. This process continued for as many profiles and 10-day intervals as necessary until the float was able to reach the sea surface, at which time it transmitted all stored profiles. Each float stored as many as 70 high-resolution profiles in this manner, or nearly 2 years’ worth of data. The floats all used the relatively high-bandwidth Iridium satellite system for communication. After the NB Palmer departed Punta Arenas, floats were deployed in Drake Passage and then along the ice edge, near the 2000 m isobath. A few floats were reprogrammed so that they can be deployed in shallower water on the shelf, where the ice cover is more permanent. Leading up to and during week 1 of field work (Sep 23-29) seventeen expendable bathythermographs (XBTs) were deployed in conjunction with 17 Argo floats between 62 south and 69S. The remaining floats were deployed in conjunction with a CTD cast from the vessel.


Purpose: The main goal of this work was to begin to extend the Argo array into ice-covered waters and to sample the high-latitude water column below sea ice under winter conditions. An analogous array of 23 floats, also supplied by the University of Washington, were deployed in the Antarctic south of Australia during the same time frame from the vessel Aurora Australis.

Related URL
Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE


Parent DIF
This data set description is a member of a collection. The collection is described in
Project ID: SIMBA Drift Station


Geographic Coverage
 N: -61.85 S: -70.683  E: -64.05  W: -94.85

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 2007-09-01
Stop Date: 2007-10-31


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > BELLINGSHAUSEN SEA


Science Keywords
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >ICE DEPTH/THICKNESS    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SNOW/ICE >ICE DEPTH/THICKNESS    [Definition]
OCEANS >OCEAN CHEMISTRY >OXYGEN    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >ICE DEPTH/THICKNESS    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >ICE TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >SNOW DEPTH    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
ENVIRONMENT
OCEANS


Platform
SV >Snow Vehicle    [Information]
GPS >Global Positioning System Satellites    [Information]
R/V NBP >R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer    [Information]


Instrument
ARGOS >ARGOS Data Collection and Position Location System    [Information]
GPS/IMU >Global Positioning System/Inertial Measurement Unit


Project
NSF/PLR >Division of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation    [Information]
IPY >INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR    [Information]
ANTARCTIC SEA ICE >Antarctic Sea Ice in International Polar Year    [Information]
SIMBA >Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic    [Information]
SIMBA DRIFT STATION >Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic-SIMBA Drift Station    [Information]


Access Constraints
None


Keywords
Argo Floats


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
Laboratory for Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics UTSA


Data Center
National Snow and Ice Data Center    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel
Name: STEPHEN ACKLEY
Phone: +1 1 210 341 6556
Email: sackley at pol.net, Stephen.ackley at utsa.edu
Contact Address:
118 W Castle Ln
City: San Antonio
Province or State: Texas
Postal Code: 78213
Country: USA



Data Center Personnel
Name: NSIDC USER SERVICES
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


Personnel
STEPHEN ACKLEY
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +1 1 210 341 6556
Email: sackley at pol.net, Stephen.ackley at utsa.edu
Contact Address:
118 W Castle Ln
City: San Antonio
Province or State: Texas
Postal Code: 78213
Country: USA


JESSICA JIMENEZ
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: 956-451-9288
Email: Jessica.jimenez_eng at yahoo.com
Contact Address:
3407 Ivy Ave
City: Hidalgo
Province or State: Texas
Postal Code: 78557
Country: USA



Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2012-02-16
Last DIF Revision Date: 2012-04-20
Future DIF Review Date: 2012-02-16

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