Sanborn Field, Long Term Crop / Soil Organic Matter ExperimentEntry ID: UMO.Sanborn
Abstract: This experimnet began in 1888 at a cool temperate site. The site was used as
pasture up until 1886, corn was grown 1887 and 1888. the soil is described as
Mexico series (fine montmorillonitic, mesic Udollic Ochraquals). Plots 1-7
(east end of the field) Lindley series (fine-loamy, mixed mesic Typic
There are 5 land-uses/rotations as follows: 1) Continuous maize, 2) Continuous
wheat, ... 3) Three year maize-wheat-clover, 4) Three year maize-soybean-wheat & 5)
Four year maize-oat-wheat-clover. Treatments are as follows: Rotations 1,2, 3 &
5 each receive none, full fertility and manure. In addition rotation 3 & 5 also
receives full fertility but N-limited. Rotation 4 receives full fertility, full
with no K and full with no P.
The measurements made (data available), frequency, and methodology are listed
a) Vegetation measurements made and frequency
Total above-ground dry matter: Annual for wheat and corn
Carbon content of offtake: Occasionally
b) Soil sampling
Ap soil tests after 5 years. Profile since 1914 near complete
characterisation at 25 years.
Details of soil sampling method: 1989, 1965 - profile cores - hydraulic
corer; systematic, 12 cores 1963, 4 cores 1989 (offset 20 cm from 1963). 1939 -
Ap, pit, below-auger, systematic. 1914 - Auger. Soil tests - surface 20cm,
tube, random. Soil is separated into layers.
Details of measuring depths and soil layers: 1989 - by 10cm increments to
120cm, by diagnostic horizons to 120cm. 1963 - same except depth limited to
120cm diagnostics. 1928 - 0-20cm, 20-45cm and 45-60cm. 1914 - 120cm by 10 and
c) Soil measurements made and frequency
Total carbon: Periodic
Method of measuring total carbon: Mainly dry combustion (combustion train,
since 1985 - LECO carbon analyzer).
Biomass carbon: Sporadic
Method of measuring biomass carbon: Modified chloroform fumigation and
direct extraction method (Jordan & Beare, 1991, Agric. Ecosyst. & Environment
Carbon measurements in other organic matter fractions: Occaisional
Method of measuring carbon in other organic matter fractions: In soil
physical fractions by dry combustion (Leco analyzer)
Carbon dioxide evolution: 1981-1994
Method of measuring carbon dioxide evolution: CO2 evolution: Static
chamber method (Anderson, 1982, Methods of soil analysis, 2nd Ed., ASA-SSSA).
CO2 concentration in soil air also measured: disposable chromatographic tubes
(Buyanovsky & Wagner, 1983, Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47: 1139-1145).
Total nitrogen: Every 25 years
Method of measuring total nitrogen: Kjeldahl (common procedure at the time
of sampling). In recent years the Soil Science society of America Methods
Manual has been used as a basis of methods.
Biomass nitrogen: Measured; frequency unspecified.
Method of measuring biomass nitrogen: Extractable nitrate and ammonium in
potassium sulfate extracts.
Soil bulk density or weight: Every 25 years.
Method of measuring soil bulk density or weight: Core volume, dry weight.
Other nutrients: Extractable P in 0.025M HCl, 0.03 NH4F.
Extractable K, Ca, Mg in 1M NH4 acetate @ pH 7.0.
Other measurements: Soil temperature (last decades), soil water content
(last decade; non-systematic), soil air CO2 concentration since 1981.
Distribution of root biomass.
d) Details of the meteorological station
Nearest meteorological station to the site: Columbia airport (to 1989; 24 km
distant), 1990 to present: on site. which is 0 km from the site at coordinates
93deg.20min. West, 38deg.57min. North. Meteorological data is available from
both a manual and an automatic station.
e) Meteorological data available and frequency
Air temperature: Continuous
Soil temperature: Daily at 5cm depth
Wind speed: Continuous
Net Radiation: Continuous
Sun hours: Continuous
Relative humidity: Continuous
Potential evapotranspiration: Estimated measured/calculated by
Estiamted by method of Thornthwaite & Mather, 1955 (Climatology 8:
f) Isotope measurements available and frequency
Total soil carbon 13 measurements: 7 times in between 1915 and 1986.
Soil carbon 13 measurements in other organic matter fractions: In silt and
clay fractions; frequency not specified.
Carbon dioxide carbon 14 measurements: After field labelling; frequency not
Details of isotope measurements: Details of isotope measurements in Balesdent
et al. (1988) and Buyanovsky, Aslam & Wagner (1994) - see reference list.
g) Archived samples available
Archived soil samples: Variable dating from 1914
Archived crop samples: Annually dating from 1989
Archived inorganic fertilizer samples: Variable dating from 1989
Archived organic fertilizer samples: Annually dating from 1989
This information was compiled for the GCTE-SOMNET Database, Pete Smith, Pete
Falloon, David Powlson, and Jo Smith. Soil Science Department,
(Click for Interactive Map)
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Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 727-803-8747 ext. 3002
Email: lrobbins at usgs.gov
USGS Center for Coastal & Watershed Studie 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
Province or State: FL
Postal Code: 33701
Role: SERF AUTHOR
Phone: (301) 614-6898
Email: Tyler.B.Stevens at nasa.gov
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global Change Master Directory
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
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