CO2, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean, CDIAC/NDP056Entry ID: CDIAC_NDP056
Abstract: [Summary adopted from the NDP-056 documentation]
The North Atlantic Ocean is characterized by an intense meridional
circulation cell carrying near-surface waters of tropical and
subtropical origin northward and deep waters of arctic and subarctic
origin southward. The related "overturning" is driven by the sinking
of water ... masses at high latitudes. The overturning rate and thus the
intensity of the meridional transports of mass, heat, and salt, is an
important control parameter for the modeling of the ocean's role in
climate. Certainly such estimates require more than one survey of the
study area; therefore, the Research Vessel (R/V) Meteor Cruise 18/1
was one in a series of cruises in the North Atlantic that started in
March 1991 and continued until 1995.
This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to
measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TALK) at
hydrographic stations, as well as underway partial pressure of CO2
(pCO2) measured during the R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North
Atlantic Ocean (Section A1E). Conducted as part of the World Ocean
Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the German North Atlantic
Overturning Rate Determination expedition, the cruise began in
Reykjavik, Iceland, on September 2, 1991, and ended after 24 days at
sea in Hamburg, Germany, on September 25. 1991. WOCE Zonal Section A1E
began at 60 N and 30(deg)30' W (southeast of Greenland) and continued
southeast with a closely spaced series of hydrocasts to 52(deg)20' N and
14(deg)15' W (Porcupine Shelves). Measurements made along WOCE Section
A1E included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by a
conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) sensor; bottle salinity;
oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; TCO2; TALK; and
underway pCO2. A total of 61 CTD casts were made, including 59 bottle
casts and 2 calibration stations. Replicate samples from seven Niskin
bottles at five stations were also collected for later shoree-based
reference analyses of TCO2 by vacuum extraction and manometry and TALK
in the laboratory of Dr. Charles D. Keeling, Scripps Institution of
Oceanography; these results are also included in this report.
TCO2 was measured by using an automated sample processsor, to extract
CO2 from seawater samples, coupled to a coulometer, to detect the
extracted gas. The precision and accuracy of the system was 11.60
umol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured using standard
potentiometric techniques; precision was 12.0 umol.kg. Underway pCO2
was measured by infrared photometry; precision was 12 uatm.
The R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 data set is available freee of charge as a
numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information
Analysis Center. The NDP consists of three oceanographic data files,
three FORTRAN 77 data retrieval routine files, an readme file, and
this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of
all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the
For more information, see:
See also the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Survey of CO2 in
(Click for Interactive Map)
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Johnson, K.M., B. Schneider, L. Mintrop, D.W.R. Wallace
Dataset Title: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean
Dataset Series Name: NDP-056
Dataset Release Date: 1996
Dataset Release Place: Oak Ridge, TN
Dataset Publisher: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis CenterOnline Resource: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/oceans/ndp_056/ndp056.html
Start Date: 1991-03-01Stop Date: 1995-12-31
OCEANS > BATHYMETRY/SEAFLOOR TOPOGRAPHY > WATER DEPTH
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > ALKALINITY > TOTAL ALKALINITY
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > CARBON
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > CARBON DIOXIDE > PARTIAL CO2
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > CARBON DIOXIDE > TOTAL CO2
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITRATE
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITRITE
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NUTRIENTS
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > OXYGEN
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PHOSPHATE
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > RADIONUCLIDES
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > SILICATE
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > STABLE ISOTOPES
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > TRACE ELEMENTS
OCEANS > OCEAN CIRCULATION > OCEAN CURRENTS
OCEANS > OCEAN CIRCULATION > OCEAN MIXED LAYER
OCEANS > OCEAN CIRCULATION > THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION
OCEANS > OCEAN PRESSURE > WATER PRESSURE
OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > WATER TEMPERATURE
OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > CONDUCTIVITY
OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > DENSITY
OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > SALINITY
OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > SALT TRANSPORT
Quality An important part of the NDP process at the Carbon Dioxide Information
Analysis Center (CDIAC) involves the quality assurance (QA) of data
before distribution. Data received at CDIAC are rarely in a condition
that would permit immediate distribution, regardless of the source.
To guarantee data of the highest possible quality, ... CDIAC conducts
extensive QA reviews that involve examining the data for completeness,
reasonableness, and accuracy. Although they have common objectives,
these reviews are tailored to each data set, often requiring extensive
programming efforts. In short, the QA process is a critical component
in the value-added concept of supplying accurate, usable data.
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: ftp
Distribution Size: 426KB
Brookhaven National Laboratory OASD Building 318
Province or State: NY
Postal Code: 11973
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Email: gsfc-gcmduso at mail.nasa.gov
Institut fur Meereskunde
Institut fur Ostseeforschung
Province or State: ROSTOCK-WARNEMUNDE
Phone: +49 431 600-4200
Fax: +49 431 600-174201
Email: dwallace at ifm.uni-kiel.de
Institute for Marine Sciences Dusternbrooker Weg 20
Postal Code: D-24105
Armstrong, F. A. J., C. R. Stearns, and J. D. H. Strickland. 1967.
The measurement of upwelling and subsequent biological processes by
means of the Technicon Autoanalyzer and associated equipment.
Deep-Sea Res. 14:381-89.
Atlas, E. L., S. W. Hager, L. L. Gordon, and P. K. Park. 1971. A
Practical Manual for Use of the ... Technicon Autoanalyzer in Seawater
Nutrient Analyses, Revised. Technical Report 215, Reference 71-22.
Oregon State University, Department of Oceanography.
Bernhardt, H., and A. Wilhelms. 1967. The continuous determination
of low level iron, soluble phosphate and total phosphate with the
AutoAnalyzer (R). Technicon Symposia, Vol. I, 385-89.
Bradshaw, A. L., and P. G. Brewer. 1988. High precision measurements
of alkalinity and total carbon dioxide in seawater by potentiometric
titration-1. Presence of unknown protolyte(s). Mar. Chem., 23:69-86.
Brewer, P. G., C. Goyet, and D. Dyrssen. 1989. Carbon dioxide
transport by ocean currents at 25 N latitude in the Atlantic Ocean.
Bryden, H. L., and M. M. Hall. 1980. Heat transport by ocean
currents across 25 N latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean. Science
Carpenter, J. H. 1965. The Chesaspeake Bay Institute technique for
the Winkler dissolved oxygen method. Limnol. Oceanogr. 10:141-43.
Culberson, C. H., and R. T. Will. 1991. A comparison of methods for
the determination of dissolved oxygen in seawater. WHP Office Report,
DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 1994. Handbook of methods for the
analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea
water. Ver. 2. ORNL/CDIAC-74. A. G. Dickson and C. Goyet (eds.).
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.
Gordon, L. I., and L. B. Jones. 1973. The effect of temperature on
carbon dioxide partial pressure in seawater. Mar. Chem. 1:317-22.
Goyet, C., and A. Poisson. 1989. New determination of carbonic acid
dissociation constants in seawater as a function of temperature and
salinity. Deep-Sea Res. 36:1635-54.
Guenther, P. R., C. D. Keeling, and G. Emanuele III. 1994. Oceanic
CO2 Measurements for the WOCE Hydrographic Survey in the Pacific
Ocean, 1990 1991: Shore Based Analyses. SIO Reference Series,
Ref. No. 94-28. University of California, San Diego, Calif.
Hager, S. W., E. L. Atlas, L. G. Gordon, A. W. Mantyla, and
P. K. Park. 1972. A comparison at sea of manual and autoanalyzer
analyses of phosphate, nitrate, and silicate.
Limnol. Oceanogr. 17:931 37.
Johnson, K. M., and D. W. R. Wallace. 1992. The single-operator
multiparameter metabolic analyzer for total carbon dioxide with
coulometric detection. DOE Research Summary, No. 19. Carbon Dioxide
Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge,
Johnson, K. M., A. E. King, and J. M. Sieburth. 1985. Coulometric
TCO2 analyses for marine studies: An introduction.
Mar. Chem. 16:61-82.
Johnson, K. M., J. M. Sieburth, P. J. B. Williams, and L. Brndstr m.
1987. Coulometric TCO2 analysis for marine studies: Automation and
calibration. Mar. Chem. 21:117-33.
Johnson, K. M., K. D. Wills, D. B. Butler, W. K. Johnson, and
C. S. Wong. 1993. Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for
marine studies: Maximizing the performance of an automated gas
extraction system and coulometric detector. Mar. Chem. 44:167-87.
Johnson, K. M., D. W. R. Wallace, R. Wilke, and C. Goyet.
1995. Carbon dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During
the R/V Meteor Cruise 15/3 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section
A9, February March 1991). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.
Meincke, J. (ed.). 1993. WOCE-NORD 1991, Cruise No. 18, 2 September
26 - September 1991. METEOR-Berichte No. 93-1. Institut fur
Meereskunde, Universitat Hamburg, Germany.
Millero, F. J., and A. Poisson. 1981. International one-atmosphere
equation of state for sea water. Deep-Sea Res. 28:625-29.
Millero, F. J., J.-Z. Zhang, K. Lee, and D. M. Campbell.
1993. Titration alkalinity of seawater. Mar. Chem. 44:153-65.
Roemmich, D., and C. Wunsch. 1985. Two transatlantic sections:
Meridional circulation and heat flux in the subtropical North Atlantic
Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. 32:619-64.
Ruhsam, C. M. 1994. WHP One-Time Section A9 Data Report. WOCE
Special Analysis Center, Bundesamt f r Seeschiffahrt and Hydrographie,
Hamburg, Germany (unpublished manuscript).
Schneider, B., K. Kremling, and J. C. Duinker. 1992. CO2 partial
pressure in northeast Atlantic and adjacent shelf waters: Processes
and seasonal variability. J. Mar. Systems 3:453-63.
Siedler, G., and W. Zenk. 1992. WOCE Sudatlantik 1991, Reise Nr. 15,
30 Dezember 1990 23 Marz 1991. METEOR-Berichte 92-1. Universitat
Stoll, M. H. C., J. W. Rommets, and H. J. W. De Baar. 1993. Effect of
selected calculation routines and dissociation constants on the
determination of total carbon dioxide in seawater. Deep-Sea
Wilke, R. J., D. W. R. Wallace, and K. M. Johnson. 1993. A
water-based, gravimetric method for the determination of gas sample
loop volume. Anal. Chem. 65:2403-06.
WOCE Operations Manual. 1991. WHP Office Report 90-1.
Rev.1. Unpublished Manuscript. WOCE Hydrographic Programme Office.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. (unpublished
Youden, W. J. 1951. Statistical Methods for Chemists. Wiley, New
Creation and Review Dates
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-04-20