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Carbon in the Atlantic Ocean Region - the CARINA project: Results and Data, Version 1.0.

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Abstract: CARINA Data Synthesis Project

By The CARINA Group

The CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) data synthesis project is an international collaborative effort of the EU IP CARBOOCEAN, and US partners. It has produced a merged internally consistent data set of open ocean subsurface measurements for biogeochemical investigations, in particular, studies involving the carbon system. The original focus area was the North Atlantic Ocean, but over time the geographic extent expanded and CARINA now includes data from the entire Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. Carbon data from the Pacific Ocean are being synthesized in the PICES effort.

The CARINA database includes data from 188 cruises. The salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon system and CFC data have been subjected to extensive quality control and adjustments have been made when necessary. The internally consistent data are available as three data products, one each for the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Oceans (CARINA Data Products). In addition, all of the individual cruise data files have been made available in WOCE exchange format in a single location (Cruise Summary Table) along with metadata and references. We strongly recommend users to employ the data products instead of the individual cruise files as the data in the latter have not been corrected for biases identified during the secondary QC. The CARINA effort is further described in the following as well as in the CARINA special issue of Earth System Science Data (ESSD) Journal.
History of the CARINA project

The CARINA project began as an informal collaboration with limited funding. The project was started by D. Wallace and L. Mintrop, and had an organizational meeting at Delmenhorst, Germany in 1999. Mintrop acted as data collector. Participation was voluntary and composed mainly of European scientists. Participating scientists were required to submit their historical data sets that included either subsurface carbon system measurements or underway surface pCO2 data. The last meeting of this group was held in 2002. By that time the group had accumulated subsurface data from approximately 30 cruises (excluding those cruises that were in GLODAP) and twice that number of underway data sets. The funding ended in 2003 and, unfortunately, the support level was insufficient to do much more than amass and catalog the submitted data (Original CARINA website).

In 2004 the original CARINA data collection was transferred to Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and a copy of the CARINA bottle data was transferred to Princeton for data assessment and quality control.

In January 2005 the E.U. funded CARBOOCEAN program began. This consortium includes most of the original CARINA scientists. CARBOOCEAN is an integrated program with the aim of making an accurate assessment of oceanic sources and sinks of carbon over space and time. It has focus on the Atlantic and Southern Ocean and a time interval of -200 to +200 years from the present. All funded CARBOOCEAN partners are required to make public all historical data and new data after a two year proprietary period. In June, 2006 the CARBOOCEAN/CARINA scientists met in Laugarvatn, Iceland to discuss methods and responsibilities for the CARINA data synthesis. By that time, the CARINA collection had grown to approximately 80 cruises. During this meeting the group decided to extend the original scope of CARINA to include the entire Atlantic, the Arctic and the Southern Ocean. Various team and project leader assignments were:

Data collection, 1st QC and production of final data products: R. Key and X. Lin
Atlantic Ocean: T. Tanhua
Arctic Ocean: S. Jutterström
Nordic Seas: A. Olsen
Southern Ocean: M. Hoppema
2nd QC code development: S. van Heuven
Web site development and maintenance: C. Schirnick
Carbon calculation software: A. Velo
CDIAC data archive: A. Kozyr

Atlantic Ocean Data Synthesis

The Atlantic Ocean subset of the CARINA (CARINA-ATL) data set consists of 98 cruises/entries, of which one of is a time series including many cruises and two others are collections of multiple cruises within the framework of a common project. Additionally, six reference cruises were included in the secondary QC for CARINA-ATL to ensure consistency between CARINA and historical databases, in particular Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP, Key et al., 2004). FiveAtlantic cruises are in common with the Southern Ocean region, and five others are in common with the Arctic Mediterranean Seas region. These overlapping cruises ensure consistency between the three regions of the CARINA data set. The Atlantic Ocean region of CARINA is loosely defined as the area between of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and 30 °S, but as mentioned, ten cruises overlap with the surrounding regions, thus extending the area covered. Most of the data are from the subpolar North Atlantic, and there are particularly large data gaps in the Tropical and South-Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The CARINA-ATL database covers the time period from 1978 to 2006, with the majority of the data from the mid 1990s to the mid 2000s. Overall, oxygen measurements show the highest incidence, followed by TCO2, Alkalinity and CFC data, although CFC data are particularly abundant for some specific regions.

An expanded version of the information contained here is available in the CARINA Numeric Data Package (NDP-091).

Related URL
Description: data set site

Description: CARINA Data Synthesis Project

Geographic Coverage
 N: 78.0 S: -65.0  E: 25.0  W: -75.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: CARINA Group
Dataset Title: Carbon in the Atlantic Ocean Region - the CARINA project: Results and Data, Version 1.0.
Dataset Release Date: 2009
Version: 1
Dataset DOI: doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/otg.CARINA.ATL.V1.0
Online Resource:

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1977-10-07
Stop Date: 2006-12-31

Location Keywords

Science Keywords

ISO Topic Category

SHIPS    [Information]

CARINA >CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) Data Synthesis Project    [Information]

Use Constraints
Please site this database as:

CARINA Group. 2009. Carbon in the Atlantic Ocean Region - the CARINA project: Results and Data, Version 1.0. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/otg.CARINA.ATL.V1.0

Data Center
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy    [Information]
Data Center URL:

Data Center Personnel
Fax: (865) 574-2232
Contact Address:
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
P.O.. Box 2008
Province or State: TENNESSEE
Postal Code: 37831-6335
Country: USA

Distribution_Format: CSV
Fees: free

Hoppema, M., Velo, A., van Heuven, S., Tanhua, T., Key, R. M., Lin, X., Bakker, D. C. E., Perez, F. F., Ríos, A. F., Lo Monaco, C., Sabine, C. L., Álvarez, M., and Bellerby, R. G. J.: Consistency of cruise data of the CARINA database in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 1, 63-75, doi:10.5194/essd-1-63-2009, 2009.

Key, R. M., Tanhua, T., Olsen, A., Hoppema, M., Jutterström, S., Schirnick, C., van Heuven, S., Kozyr, A., Lin, X., Velo, A., Wallace, D. W. R., and Mintrop, L.: The CARINA data synthesis project: introduction and overview, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 105-121, doi:10.5194/essd-2-105-2010, 2010.

Steinfeldt, R., Tanhua, T., Bullister, J. L., Key, R. M., Rhein, M., and Köhler, J.: Atlantic CFC data in CARINA, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 1-15, doi:10.5194/essd-2-1-2010, 2010.

Stendardo, I., Gruber, N., and Körtzinger, A.: CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 1, 87-100, doi:10.5194/essd-1-87-2009, 2009.

Pierrot, D., Brown, P., Van Heuven, S., Tanhua, T., Schuster, U., Wanninkhof, R., and Key, R. M.: CARINA TCO2 data in the Atlantic Ocean, Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 3, 1-26, doi:10.5194/essdd-3-1-2010, 2010.

Tanhua, T., Steinfeldt, R., Key, R. M., Brown, P., Gruber, N., Wanninkhof, R., Perez, F., Körtzinger, A., Velo, A., Schuster, U., van Heuven, S., Bullister, J. L., Stendardo, I., Hoppema, M., Olsen, A., Kozyr, A., Pierrot, D., Schirnick, C., and Wallace, D. W. R.: Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 17-34, doi:10.5194/essd-2-17-2010, 2010.

Tanhua, T., Brown, P. J., and Key, R. M.: CARINA: nutrient data in the Atlantic Ocean, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 1, 7-24, doi:10.5194/essd-1-7-2009, 2009.

Tanhua, T., van Heuven, S., Key, R. M., Velo, A., Olsen, A., and Schirnick, C.: Quality control procedures and methods of the CARINA database, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 35-49, doi:10.5194/essd-2-35-2010, 2010.

Velo, A., Perez, F. F., Brown, P., Tanhua, T., Schuster, U., and Key, R. M.: CARINA alkalinity data in the Atlantic Ocean, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 1, 45-61, doi:10.5194/essd-1-45-2009, 2009.

Velo, A., Pérez, F. F., Lin, X., Key, R. M., Tanhua, T., de la Paz, M., Olsen, A., van Heuven, S., Jutterström, S., and Ríos, A. F.: CARINA data synthesis project: pH data scale unification and cruise adjustments, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 133-155, doi:10.5194/essd-2-133-2010, 2010.

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2010-12-10
Last DIF Revision Date: 2016-11-18

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