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Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1993-2004
Entry ID: G02173

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Summary
Abstract: In the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, the most significant sea ice anomalies have occurred in the summer ice extent (Eicken et al. 2006). In addition, there has been a considerable decline in the multiyear ice pack in this region (Eicken et al. 2006). To help understand these anomalies, this data set contains information on recurring spring leads and landfast ice extent in this area. This data set maps and documents the spatial and temporal distribution of recurring leads and landfast ice off the coast of northern Alaska in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas (Eicken et al. 2006). The leads data span from 1993 through 2004 and are based on visible and infrared Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data onboard the NOAA 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 satellites. The landfast ice extent data extend from 1996 through 2004 and are based on RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The data are available in a number of formats including ArcGIS geodatabases (.mdb), shapefiles (.shp), ArcGIS grids (.adf), ArcGIS grids in ArcInfo interchange format (.e00), and GeoTIFFs (.tif). Statistics are also provided in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets (.xls) and metadata in several formats including XML (.xml), SGML (.sgml), HTML (.html), and ASCII text (.txt). Quick-view browse images in JPEG (.jpg) format are provided for the shapefiles, grids, and GeoTIFFs. Data are available via FTP.

Related URL
Link: GET DATA
Description: FTP


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: NOAA at NSIDC Web Site


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Documentation


Geographic Coverage
 N: 73.95769 S: 68.48204  E: -129.87714  W: -164.08084

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Eicken, H., L. Shapiro, A. G. Gaylord, A. Mahoney, and P. W. Cotter.
Dataset Title: Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1993-2004
Dataset Series Name: G02173
Dataset Release Date: 2009-06-17
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, Colorado USA
Dataset Publisher: NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center
Version: 1
Dataset DOI: doi:10.7265/N5SB43P0
Online Resource: http://nsidc.org/data/G02173


Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1993-12-09
Stop Date: 2004-07-29


Location Keywords
OCEAN > ARCTIC OCEAN > BEAUFORT SEA
OCEAN > ARCTIC OCEAN > CHUKCHI SEA


Data Resolution
Latitude Resolution: 1.1 km
Longitude Resolution: 1.1 km
Latitude Resolution: 100 m
Longitude Resolution: 100 m


Science Keywords
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >ICE EDGES    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >ICE EDGES    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >ICE EXTENT    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >ICE EXTENT    [Definition]
CRYOSPHERE >SEA ICE >LEADS    [Definition]
OCEANS >SEA ICE >LEADS    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE


Platform
NOAA-12 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-12    [Information]
NOAA-14 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-14    [Information]
NOAA-15 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-15    [Information]
NOAA-16 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-16    [Information]
NOAA-17 >National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration-17    [Information]
RADARSAT-1    [Information]


Instrument
AVHRR >Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer    [Information]
SAR >Synthetic Aperture Radar    [Information]


Quality
Note: NSIDC did not perform a quality assessment of the data. Landfast Ice Extent: The manual process for identifying landfast ice extent has subjectivity. However, this subjectivity was reduced by using a gradient difference. Refer to the landfast ice extent Data Processing section of this document for more information on the gradient difference. The following is a list of the quality checks performed on the landfast ice (Mahoney et al. 2005): * Data were checked for adequate coverage over the study area (subregions 2-11). * Images with a large geolocation error were identified and either corrected or disregarded. * The geolocation accuracy could create collocation errors of up to 10 pixels or 1 km between parts of two mosaics. Leads: The following checks were performed on the AVHRR data: * Manually examined all scenes and excluded images or image sections with any trace of cloud cover or ambiguous lead/cloud features to keep the potential source of error due to clouds and fog to a minimum. * Classified lead/ice images were compared to ship-based observations of lead fractions in May and June of 2004 and found to be in reasonable agreement with a deviation of two and one percentage-point, respectively.


Keywords
AVHRR
Beaufort Sea
Chukchi Sea
Infrared
landfast ice
Leads
NOAA
RADARSAT-1
Radarsat imagery
SAR imagery
Sea Ice Extent
Visible Imagery


Data Set Progress
COMPLETE


Originating Center
NOAA


Data Center
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at the National Snow and Ice Data Center    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org/noaa/

Data Center Personnel
Name: NSIDC NOAA USER SERVICES
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


National Snow and Ice Data Center    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://nsidc.org

Data Center Personnel
Name: NSIDC USER SERVICES
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA



Distribution
Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution_Format: ESRI Grid

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution_Format: ESRI Interchange

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution_Format: Microsoft Excel

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Size: 15 - 22 KB
Distribution_Format: XML

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Size: 7 - 86 MB
Distribution_Format: Microsoft Access

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution_Format: ESRI Shapefile

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution_Format: JPEG

Distribution_Media: FTP
Distribution_Size: .1 - 30 MB
Distribution_Format: GeoTIFF


Personnel
HAJO EICKEN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: (907)474-7280
Fax: (907)474-7290
Email: hajo.eicken at gi.alaska.edu
Contact Address:
Geophysical Institute
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 757320
City: Fairbanks
Province or State: AK
Postal Code: 99775-7320
Country: USA


LEWIS H SHAPIRO
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:
University of Alaska Fairbanks
Geophysical Institute
City: Fairbanks
Province or State: AK
Postal Code: 99775-7320
Country: USA


ALLISON GRAVES GAYLORD
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: (907) 852-4881
Fax: (907) 852-4882
Email: NunaTech at usa.net
Contact Address:
Nuna Technologies
P.O. Box 1483
City: Homer
Province or State: AK
Postal Code: 99603
Country: USA


NSIDC USER SERVICES
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +1 (303) 492-6199
Fax: +1 (303) 492-2468
Email: nsidc at nsidc.org
Contact Address:
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
City: Boulder
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0449
Country: USA


P W COTTER
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:
Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks


Publications/References
Eicken, H., L. Shapiro, A. G. Gaylord, A. Mahoney, and P. Cotter. 2006. Mapping and Characterization of Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. Final Report, Minerals Management Service OCS Study MMS 2005-068. Eicken, H., R. Gradinger, A. Graves, A. Mahoney, I. Rigor, and H. Melling. 2005. Sediment Transport by Sea Ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Increasing Importance Due to Changing Ice Conditions? Deep-Sea Research II 52: 3281-3302. Fett, R. W., R. E. Englebretson, and S. D. Burk. 1997. Technologies for Analyzing Lead Condition in Visible, Infrared and Microwave Satellite Imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 13657-13671. Key, J. R., R. Stone, J. A. Maslanik, and E. Ellefsen. 1993. The Detectability of Sea-Ice Leads in Satellite Data as a Function of Atmospheric Conditions and Measurement Scale, Annals of Glaciology 17: 227-232. Kwok, R. and G. F. Cunningham. 1994. Use of Time Series SAR Data to Resolve Ice Type Ambiguities in Newly Opened Leads. IGARSS'94: International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. Surface and Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Technologies, Data Analysis, and Interpretation: 1024-1026. Lindsay, R. W. and D. A. Rothrock. 1995. Arctic Sea Ice Leads from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Images. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 4533-4544. Mahoney, A. 2006. 'Alaska Landfast Sea Ice Dynamics.' Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, August 2006. Mahoney, A., H. Eicken, L. Shapiro, and A. Graves. 2005. Defining and Locating the Seaward Landfast Ice Edge in Northern Alaska. In: 18th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, J.P. Dempsey (Editor). POAC '05 Proceedings Volume 3, Potsdam, NY, June 26-30, 2005. Mahoney, A., H. Eicken, A. G. Gaylord, and L. Shapiro. 2007. Alaska Landfast Sea Ice: Links with Bathymetry and Atmospheric Circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C02001. Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, S. Drobot, S. Gearheard, M. Holland, J. Maslanik, W. Meier, and T. Scambos. 2008. Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007. EOS, 89(2), 8 January.

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2009-06-17
Last DIF Revision Date: 2016-01-27



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