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Middle Pliocene Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction: PRISM2
Entry ID: USGS_OF99-535


Summary
Abstract: As part of the USGS Global Change Research effort, the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) Project has documented the characteristics of middle Pliocene climate on a global scale. The middle Pliocene was selected for detailed study because it spans the transition from relatively warm global climates when glaciers were absent or greatly reduced in the Northern Hemisphere to the generally cooler climates of the Pleistocene with expanded Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and prominent glacial-interglacial cycles.

The purpose of this report is to document and explain the PRISM2 mid Pliocene reconstruction. The PRISM2 reconstruction consists of a series of 28 global scale data sets (Table 1) on a 2° latitude by 2° longitude grid. As such, it is the most complete and detailed global reconstruction of climate and environmental conditions older than the last glacial.

PRISM2 evolved from a series of studies that summarized conditions at a large number of marine and terrestrial sites and areas (eg. Cronin and Dowsett, 1991; Poore and Sloan, 1996). The first global reconstruction of mid Pliocene climate (PRISM1) was based upon 64 marine sites and 74 terrestrial sites and included data sets representing annual vegetation and land ice, monthly sea surface temperature (SST) and sea-ice, sea level and topography on a 2°x2° grid (Dowsett et al. (1996) and Thompson and Fleming (1996)). The current reconstruction (PRISM2) is a revision of PRISM1 that incorporates several important differences:

1) Additional sites were added to the marine portion of the reconstruction to improve previous coverage. Sites from the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean are incorporated for the first time in PRISM2.

2) All Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates were recalculated based upon a new core top calibration to the Reynolds and Smith (1995) adjusted optimum interpolation (AOI) SST data set. This reduced some of the problems previously encountered when different fossil groups were calibrated to different modern climatologies (Climate / Long Range Investigation Mapping and Predictions [CLIMAP], Goddard Institute for Space Sciences [GISS], Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer [AVHRR], etc.).

3) PRISM2 uses a +25m rise in sea level for the Pliocene (PRISM1 used +35m), in keeping with much new data that has become available.

4) Although the change in global ice volume between PRISM1 and PRISM2 is minor, PRISM2 uses model results from Prentice (personal communication) to guide the areal and topographic distribution of Antarctic ice. This results in a more realistic Antarctic ice configuration in tune with the +25m sea level rise.

Related URL
Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Access to documentation


Geographic Coverage
 N: 90.0 S: -90.0  E: 180.0  W: -180.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Dowsett, H.J., J.A. Barron, R.A. Poore, R.S.Thompson, T,M. Cronin, S.E.Ishman, and D.A.Willard
Dataset Title: Middle Pliocene Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction: PRISM2
Dataset Series Name: U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OPEN FILE REPORT 99-535
Dataset Release Date: 1999
Dataset Release Place: Reston, VA
Dataset Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Version: 1.0
Issue Identification: 99-535
Online Resource: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/of99-535/


Paleo_Temporal_Coverage
Paleo Start Date: 3.29 Ma
Paleo Stop Date: 2.97 Ma
Chrono Unit:


Location Keywords
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL


Data Resolution
Latitude Resolution: 2 degree
Longitude Resolution: 2 degree
Temporal Resolution: monthly, annual


Science Keywords
CRYOSPHERE >SNOW/ICE >ICE EXTENT    [Definition]
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE >SNOW/ICE >ICE EXTENT    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >TOPOGRAPHY >TERRAIN ELEVATION    [Definition]
OCEANS >OCEAN TEMPERATURE >SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >GLACIATION    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >MICROFOSSILS    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >PALEOVEGETATION    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >POLLEN    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >RADIOCARBON    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >OCEAN/LAKE RECORDS >ISOTOPES    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >OCEAN/LAKE RECORDS >MICROFOSSILS    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >OCEAN/LAKE RECORDS >OXYGEN ISOTOPES    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >OCEAN/LAKE RECORDS >RADIOCARBON    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >PALEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS >SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE RECONSTRUCTION    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >PALEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS >SEA LEVEL RECONSTRUCTION    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >PALEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS >VEGETATION RECONSTRUCTION    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >OCEAN/LAKE RECORDS >POLLEN
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >ANIMALS/INVERTEBRATES >ARTHROPODS >CRUSTACEANS >OSTRACODS
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >PROTISTS >AMOEBOIDS >FORAMINIFERS    [Definition]
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >PROTISTS >DIATOMS    [Definition]
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >PLANTS >MICROALGAE >DIATOMS


ISO Topic Category
GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION


Project
PRISM >Pleistocene, Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping Project    [Information]


Keywords
99-535
OFR
Open File Report
reconstructions
Pliocene
SST
ice volume
sea level


Data Set Progress
COMPLETE


Originating Center
USGS


Data Center
Eastern Earth Surface Processes Team, Eastern Region, Geology Division, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eespteam/

Data Center Personnel
Name: HARRY J. DOWSETT
Contact Address:
U.S. Geological Survey
955 National Center
City: Reston
Province or State: VA
Postal Code: 20192
Country: USA



Distribution
Distribution_Media: online
Distribution_Format: PDF
Fees: none


Personnel
HARRY J. DOWSETT
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:
U.S. Geological Survey
955 National Center
City: Reston
Province or State: VA
Postal Code: 20192
Country: USA


JOHN A. BARRON
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:
U.S. Geological Survey
345 Middlefield Rd.
City: Menlo Park
Province or State: CA
Postal Code: 94025
Country: USA


RICHARD Z. POORE
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 727-803-8747 x3131
Fax: 727-803-2032
Email: rpoore at usgs.gov
Contact Address:
St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
Province or State: FL
Postal Code: 33701
Country: USA


ROBERT S. THOMPSON
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Contact Address:
U.S. Geological Survey
Box 25046, MS 919
Denver Federal Center
City: Denver
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80225
Country: USA


THOMAS MARK CRONIN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 703-648-6363
Fax: 703-648-6032
Email: tcronin at usgs.gov
Contact Address:
U.S. Geological Survey
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
City: Reston
Province or State: VA
Postal Code: 20192
Country: USA


SCOTT E ISHMAN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: 618-453-7377
Fax: 618-453-7393
Email: sishman at geo.siu.edu, sishman at siu.edu
Contact Address:
Department of Geology, MC 4324
Southern Illinois University
1259 Lincoln Drive
City: Carbondale
Province or State: IL
Postal Code: 62901
Country: USA


DEBRA A. WILLARD
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: (703) 648-5320
Fax: (703) 648-6953
Email: dwillard at geochange.er.usgs.gov
Email: dwillard at mailrvag2.er.usgs.gov
Contact Address:
MS 926A National Center
U.S. Geological Survey
City: Reston
Province or State: VA
Postal Code: 20192
Country: USA


Publications/References

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2007-05-31
Last DIF Revision Date: 2016-01-27



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