Corrosivity Mapping of Antarctica utilising exposure of standard alloy coupons
Entry ID: ASAC_537

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Summary
Abstract: Antarctica is the world's coldest, driest, highest and least polluted continent. Accepted wisdom is that atmospheric corrosion rates in Antarctica should be low because of the extreme dry cold. Russian research suggested that temperatures below 0 degrees C alone are insufficient to eliminate corrosion although temperatures consistently below -25 degrees C will markedly decrease corrosivity. The severe and unfamiliar Antarctic conditions challenge assumptions about the behaviour of materials. In the 1960's, snow and ice was removed from Captain Scott's hut at Cape Evens revealing buried artefacts in excellent condition. The excavation changed the microclimate radically and significant deterioration of several materials, especially metals, has since occurred. The need to objectively measure corrosivity arose from the unexpectedly severe corrosion problems at several historic sites and the need to develop treatment and preventative conservation strategies. Significant corrosion problems also affect old sealing and whaling stations and artefacts on subantarctic islands. International cooperation has been sought to enable the exposure of standard steel coupons and measurement of atmospheric corrosivity rates in different climate zones in Antarctica. Ten locations on the continent and various sites on four subantarctic islands have been monitored, chosen because of the potential to access the site and availability of meteorological data from research bases and automatic weather stations. Observations are that the method is sufficiently sensitive to measure low rates of corrosion. The results are consistent with the Russian hyopothesis that temperatures below 0 degrees C alone will not significantly reduce corrosion. Steel corrosion rates range by a factor of more than 500 in Antarctica from the coast to far inland. Temperatures at coastal sites rarely exceed freezing and never at inland sites. A highly significant factor is atmospheric salt deposition since rain is rare. This project has determined that the lowest corrosivity rate ever measured is at Vostok, the coldest place on earth, which is 1200 km from the sea.

The Heard Island document available in pdf form at the url given below is reproduced with the permission of the Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania.
The paper was published in the Heard Island volume by the Royal Society of Tasmania (GPO Box 1166M, Hobart 7001, Tasmania, Australia) from whom the entire volume is available for A$22; plus postage (A$2;.45) for orders from within Australia and A$20; plus postage (A$6; in Asia and the Pacific and A$9; elsewhere; payment in Australian currency) for orders from beyond Australia.

The fields for this dataset are:
distance from sea (km)
days exposed
corrosivity
mass loss (g)
Blank loss (g)
% blank loss

Related URL
Link: GET DATA
Description: Download page for Australian Antarctic Data Centre


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE
Description: Public information for ASAC project 537


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset


Geographic Coverage
 N: -44.0 S: -45.0  E: 39.0  W: 38.0
 N: -53.1 S: -53.2  E: 73.6  W: 73.5
 N: -54.0 S: -54.0  E: 159.0  W: 158.0
 N: -61.0 S: -62.0  E: 55.0  W: 54.0
 N: -61.0 S: -90.0  E: 180.0  W: -180.0

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1991-09-30
Stop Date: 1996-03-31


Location Keywords
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > Marion Island
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > Signy
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > MACQUARIE ISLAND > Isthmus
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Rothera
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Mawson
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Vanda
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Robertskollen
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > LGB00
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > LGB10
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > LGB35
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > Vostok
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > South Pole
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
OCEAN > SOUTHERN OCEAN > HEARD AND MCDONALD ISLANDS


Science Keywords
SOLID EARTH >GEOCHEMISTRY >GEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES >OXIDATION/REDUCTION    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION


Quality
Values provided in temporal coverage are approximate only.


Access Constraints
These data are publicly available for download from the URL given below.


Use Constraints
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).


Keywords
% BLANK LOSS
ANTARCTIC
BLANK LOSS (G)
COLD CLIMATE
CORROSIVITY
DAYS EXPOSED
DISTANCE FROM SEA (KM)
MASS LOSS (G)
SALT DEPOSITION
SUBANTARCTIC


Data Set Progress
COMPLETE


Data Center
Australian Antarctic Data Centre, Australia    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://data.aad.gov.au

Data Center Personnel
Name: DATA OFFICER AADC
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: metadata at aad.gov.au
Contact Address:
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
City: Kingston
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Country: Australia


Personnel
COLIN PEARSON
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +61 2 6201 2368
Fax: +61 2 6201 5419
Email: pearson at science.canberra.edu.au
Contact Address:
CULTURAL HERITAGE RESEARCH
UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA
CENTRE
City: BELCONNEN
Province or State: Australian Capital Territory
Postal Code: 2601
Country: Australia


Publications/References
Hughes, J. (1992), Antarctica is rusting away., Focus Spring, 2

Hughes, J. (1991), In situ conservation versus relocation: the case of Sir Douglas Mawson's huts in Antarctica Historic Environment, In situ conservation versus relocation: the case of Sir Douglas Mawson's huts in Antarctica Historic Environment, 1 and 2, 8, 19

Hughes, J.D. (1988), The problems of preservation in a polar climate - the conservation of Sir Douglas Mawson's huts at Commonwealth Bay, Antarctica., Bulletin of the Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Materials, 3 and 4, 14, 1, Canberra

Hughes, J.D. (1993), Measurement of atmospheric corrosion using standard coupons and ATCORR units and its application in the preservation of outdoor cultural material., Bulletin of the Australian Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Materials, 18, 25-43

Hughes, J.D. (1991), New approaches for the 'in situ' preservation of Mawson's huts at Commonwealth Bay, Australian Antarctic Territory., Preprints of the Helsinki Conference on International Council of Museums ., 23-26

Hughes, J.D., King, G.A. and O'Brien, D.J. (1996), Corrosivity in Antarctica - revelations on the nature of corrosion in the world's coldest, driest, highest and purest continent., 13th International Corrosion Conference, 25-29 November 1996, Melbourne

Hughes, J.D. and Lazer, E. (2000), Importance of &historic sites& on Heard Island for protection of scientific resources and environmental management of a world heritage site., Papers and Proceedings of the Royal scoiety of Tasmania, 133, 2, 71-77

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2000-11-01
Last DIF Revision Date: 2014-08-29

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