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Time-Averaged Inventory of Volcanic Sulfur Emissions from the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA), IGBP/IGACEntry ID: GEIA_SO2_VOLCANO
Abstract: The Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) is an activity of the
International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Core Project of the
International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP). The focus of GEIA
is to make global emissions available on a one degree grid.
A time-averaged inventory of subaerial volcanic sulfur emissions is
presented primarily for the use of global sulfur and sulfate ... modelers.
This inventory is based upon the 25 year history of making sulfur,
primarily sulfur dioxide, measurements at volcanoes. These "hard"
data are then extrapolated to other volcanoes. Actual measurements of
subaerial volcanic SO2 emissions indicate a time-averaged flux of 13
Tg/a SO2 based upon an early 1970's to 1997 time frame. When
considering the other sulfur species also present in volcanic
emissions, a time-averaged inventory of subaerial volcanic sulfur
emissions is 10 Tg/a S.
The GEIA repository for this inventory contains nine files. The file,
volcanos.txt, is a copy of the inventory description. Volcano
altitudes are in volcalt.txt and the references used to construct the
inventory in bibliography.txt. Volcano locations are stored in
LOCavg1.1a and plotted in LOCavg1.ps. SO2 from continuously emitting
volcanoes are stored in COVavg1.1a and plotted in COVavg1.ps. SO2
from sporadically emitting volcanoes are stored in SPVmax1.1a and
plotted in SPVmax1.ps.
More information about GEIA, its products, and the data
presented here can be accessed at
(Click for Interactive Map)
Start Date: 2009-09-30Stop Date: 2012-03-31
Quality Values provided in temporal and spatial coverage are approximate only.
Taken from the 2009-2010 Progress Report:
Variations to work plan or objectives:
No field work to collect samples was able to be performed, all activities to date have been laboratory based.
1. PCR analysis of PR in 65 Antarctic bacterial strains (obtained from previous AAD-supported ... activity) by marine science student Jaume Bibloni. Results to date indicate extensive presence of PR genes in Antarctic lake bacteria including undescribed species. PR presence in sea-ice bacteria was more restricted. Obvious strain-dependency occurs in PR distribution. Sequence data obtained for most PR positive strains. Limitations in the analysis include the need to use highly degenerate primer oligonucleotides (due to high level of variability PR sequences at the nucleotide level). Work is ongoing to retest several strains giving equivocal results in the PCR asays.
2. Proteomics analysis has been initiated (Clare Rutherford Honours student) for analysis of response of Psychroflexus torquis to light and dark conditions grown at 2 C (grown in a modified marine medium). The proteomics involves shotgun analysis using a 2-dimensional HPLC separation of trypsinised protein extracts (recovered using the QProteome proteoin extraction kit and extraction with membrane protein surfactant C7BzO, Sigma-Aldrich) coupled to nano-flow LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. This work is done in collaboration with Dr Edwin Lowe, Central Sciences Laboratory. The goal of this experiment is to determine whether the presence of light induces PR translation (abundance) and it cognate carotenoid hydroxylase as well as other changes to the proteome. Based on recent experiments on other bacteria (E. coli and L. monocytogenes) as much as 50% of the proteome can be recovered using this approach (termed "MudPit" - multidimensional protein information technology). This will be first time such ana analysis has been performed on a marine bacterial species.
3. Growth experiments have been initiated by Clare Rutherford and Jaume Bibloni to determine conditions inducing growth rates and yields in the presence of light for the PR-bearing species P. torquis. The conditions being focussed on are nutritional. The experiments involve utilisation of 96-well trays and spectrophotometry using a plate reader. Initial results suggest that light induces growth when certain critical nutrients are low, potentially either iron and/or certain vitamins (cobalamin), suggesting that PR may aid in generating a proton gradient helping drive enhanced nutrient uptake.
Access Constraints These data are not yet publicly available.
Use Constraints This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=AAS_3127 when using these data.
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: HTTP
Distribution Size: 2.8 MB
Distribution Format: Excel, PDF
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: +61 3 6226 6380
Fax: +61 3 6226 2642
Email: john.bowman at utas.edu.au
School of Agricultural Science University of Tasmania Private Bag 54
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7001
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +61 3 6232 3244
Fax: +61 3 6232 3351
Email: dave.connell at aad.gov.au
Australian Antarctic Division 203 Channel Highway
Province or State: Tasmania
Postal Code: 7050
Bianca Porteus, Chawalit Kocharunchitt, Rolf E. Nilsson,Tom Ross and John P. Bowman (2011), Utility of gel-free, label-free shotgun proteomics approaches to investigate microorganisms, Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 90, 407-416, doi:DOI 10.1007/s00253-011-3172-z
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2010-04-15
Last DIF Revision Date: 2012-11-05