Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Computed from Infrared Satellite Imagery during the TOGA COARE Intensive Observing Period (IOP)Entry ID: COARE_asf_SST
Abstract: The TOGA COARE Data Information System distributes all TOGA COARE
NOAA-11 and 12 AVHRR HRPT data are available upon request, MCSST and SMSST and
ERS-1 ASST maps available from the University of Colorado, Colorado Center for
Astrodynamics Research, at http://ccar.colorado.edu/. NOAA-11 and 12 ... AVHRR
HRPT and LAC data are available from the US Geological Survey via telnet to
glis.cr.usgs.gov. SST analyses are available from the National Center for
Atmospheric Research via anonymous ftp from ncardata.ucar.edu.
TOGA COARE was a multidisciplinary, international research effort that
investigated the scientific phenomena associated with the interaction
between the atmosphere and the ocean in the warm pool region of the
western Pacific. The field experiment phase of the program took place
from 1 November 1992 through 28 February 1993 and involved the
deployment of oceanographic ships and buoys, several ship and land
based Doppler radars, multiple low and high level aircraft equipped
with Doppler radar and other airborne sensors, as well as a variety of
surface based instruments for in situ observations.
1) NOAA-11/NOAA-12 AVHRR
AVHRR: The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is a five channel
scanning radiometer that was installed on the NOAA 11 and 12 Polar Orbiting
satellites. The radiometer provides day and night imaging in the Visible (VIS)
and Infrared (IR), sea surface temperature determination, estimation of heat
budget components and identification of snow and sea-ice. The near-IR channel
(channel 3: 3.55-3.99 um) and the two IR channels (channel 4: 10.2-11.5 um; and
5: 11.5-12.5 um) are used to compute SST.
HRPT: Full resolution images for all bands, with a nadir field of view of 1.1
km, digitized to 10-bit precision, and corrected for panoramic distortion, are
globally broadcasted as direct readout at VHF and S-band frequencies to local
users. This real-time transmission is called HRPT (High Resolution Picture
LAC: In addition to the HRPT mode, about ten minutes of high-resolution data
per orbit may be selectively recorded over any portion of the world as selected
by NOAA/NESDIS on board the satellite. These data are then transmitted for
playback to the NOAA central processing facility at Suitland, Maryland, through
the Fairbanks and Wallops Command Data Acquisition (CDA) stations. These
recorded data are referred to as LAC (Local Area Coverage) data.
GAC: The full resolution data are also processed onboard the satellite
into low resolution, 4km GAC (Global Area Coverage) data, which is
recorded only for readout by CDA stations. GAC data contains only one
out of three original AVHRR lines and the data volume and resolution
are further reduced by averaging every four adjacent samples and
skipping the fifth sample along the scan line. Low-resolution images
are also broadcasted using a weather fax format, permitting reception
with inexpensive receivers and omnidirectional NOAA.
The following AVHRR data are available for the TOGA COARE Period:
a) AVHRR LAC and HRPT Data (1 km resolution) - U.S. Geological Survey
The USGS provides researchers with an on-line data inventory system
which, for AVHRR data, also allows users to preview or browse images
via an X-window application. Text-based queries only, with no
browsing are also provided (for those without x-windows capabilities).
Access is via telnet to xglis.cr.usgs.gov (x-window) or
b) AVHRR HRPT Data - University of Colorado
These data are available upon request from Andrew Wobido at CU.
b1. Raw AVHRR HRPT data as received at Townsville, Australia.
b2. Calibrated full pass HRPT data.
Use of standard CCAR NES-107 based calibration algorithm. For further
information contact Dan Baldwin at CCAR.
b3. Calibrated and navigated full-pass HRPT data.
Navigation was performed per routines detailed in Baldwin et al. (in
press). These data have individual channel brightness temperatures,
satellite elevation, solar zenith angle, etc. Data are available on
both the 4 km and 1 km level.
c) MCSST Image Maps - University of Colorado
Multi-channel sea surface temperature (MCSST) maps are located in the
anonymous ftp area of bilbo.colorado.edu in subdirectory
These images were processed using standard NOAA MCSST algorithms that
were derived from comparisons between satellite infrared measurements
and in-situ SST data from drifting buoys to correct for water vapor
d) SMSST Image Maps - University of Colorado
Satellite-measured skin surface temperature maps (SMSST) are located
in the anonymous ftp area of bilbo.colorado.edu in subdirectory
These are 4 km and 1 km raster images (1024x512) in Unix compressed
format. The three directories (10day, 14day, and monthly) contain
composite SMSST maps for the TOGA COARE region of 10N to 10S and 140E
to 180E. SMSST was calculated for nighttime passes (9pm to 9am). Map
sizes are 4096 2048 (2-byte) navigated to a 1 km resolution. and 1024
512 (2-byte) navigated to a 4 km resolution.
The SMSST algorithm used is as follows:
smsst = a1 + a2*t4 + a3*(t4-t5) + a4*(t4-t5)*(sec(zen)-1)
t4 = channel 4 brightness temp.
t5 = channel 5 brightness temp.
zen = satellite zenith angle
a* = coef.'s
a1 = 62.748264;
a2 = 0.7843099;
a3 = 2.4847593;
a4 = 0.3593804;
a1 = 57.416015;
a2 = 0.8038953;
a3 = 2.6409328;
a4 = 0.4254607;
For more information contact Andrew Wobido at email@example.com.
e) Annual Mean Skin SST Image obtained from AVHRR GAC data - University of
An image showing the annual mean of Skin SST for the period 09/01/92
to 08/27/93 is available from tcdm.coare.ucar.edu in subdirectory
air_sea_fluxes/Skin_Mean. The aereal coverage is 15 S to 25 N and 120
E to 160 W (200 E in the image). The original resolution of the image
is 5 km (AVHRR GAC data), but reduced to about 20 km in this gif
format image. The original resolution image can be posted if
The GAC data were provided by NCAR (for 92's and early 93's) and GSFC
(rest of 93's). First 10-day composites of the Skin SST, MCSST NLSST
were done with a combined cloud filter of dynamic threshold and band
(latitude) threshold method. The 4 sigma method was used for further
cloud filtering after the 10-day composite. Interpolation was then
applied on the composite SST data. Mean SSTs were computed from these
36 10-day composite results.
Results from the Skin SST, MCSST and NLSST show almost the same
pattern of SST in both the individual 10-day composite data and the
annual mean SST, with some differences in absolute value.
For more information contact YU Yunyue at firstname.lastname@example.org.
2) ERS-1 ATSR - University of Colorado
ATSR: The Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) is a four channel,
dual view, self calibrating infrared radiometer installed onboard the
European Space Agency's (ESA) European Remote Sensing Satellite
(ERS-1) . The instrument's design allows the global measurement of sea
surface temperature to an accuracy of +/- 0.3 K. The ATSR channels
are at wavelengths of 1.6 um (visible) and three thermal bands at 3.7
um, 11 um, and 12 um.
Low resolution, spatially-averaged Sea Surface Temperature (ASST)
composites at a resolution of half a degree is available via anonymous
ftp from bilbo.colorado.edu in subdirectory pub/coare/atsr. Map sizes
are 720. The Nadir directory contains 1992 and 1993 images of
Nadir-Only, the Dual directory contains Dual-only spatially- averaged
sea surface temperature for the same time period.
For more information contact Andrew Wobido at email@example.com
3) Global SST Analyses
Richard Reynolds and Diane Stokes from the Coupled Model Project at the
National Meteorological Center (NMC), have provided global SST
analyses. The optimum interpolation (OI) sea surface temperature (SST)
analysis is produced weekly on a one degree grid. The analysis uses in
situ and satellite SST plus SST's simulated by sea-ice cover. Before
the analysis is computed, the satellite data is adjusted for biases
using the method of described by Reynolds (1988) and Reynolds and
Marsico (1993). A description of the analysis can be found in Reynolds
and Smith (1993). The dataset begins in 1985 and presently extends
through July 1993.
Special TOGA COARE IOP time subsets (9/1992-5/1993) of this dataset
are available via anonymous ftp from ncardata.ucar.edu in subdirectory
toga_coare/ocean. This directory contains a README file that has a
description of each data, format, and access program file in the
For more information contact Steve Worley at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Start Date: 1992-11-01Stop Date: 1993-02-28
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > ALBEDO
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > SOLAR IRRADIANCE
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION > SOLAR RADIATION
OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > INFRARED WAVELENGTHS > INFRARED IMAGERY
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > INFRARED WAVELENGTHS > REFLECTED INFRARED
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > PLATFORM CHARACTERISTICS > VIEWING GEOMETRY > SOLAR ZENITH ANGLE
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS > VISIBLE IMAGERY
ISO Topic Category
Distribution Media: On-line
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: (303) 497-2061
Email: baeuerle at ucar.edu
UCAR/TOGA COARE International Project Office 3300 Mitchell Lane, Suite 380
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80301
Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research University of Colorado
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309-0431
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: (303) 492-8868
Fax: (303) 492-2825
Email: wobido at frodo.colorado.edu
Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research University of Colorado P.O. Box 431
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80309
Baldwin, D., Rosborough, G. R., and Emery, W., 1994: Precise AVHRR Image
Navigation. IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens (in press).
Derber, J. and A. Rosati, 1989: A Global Oceanic Data Assimilation
System. J. Physical Oceanography, 19, 1333-1347.
Leetmaa, A. and M. Ji, 1989: Operational Hindcasting of the Tropical
Pacific. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 13, ... 465-490.
Reynolds, R. W., 1988: A real-time global sea surface temperature
analysis. J. Climate, 1, 75-86.
Reynolds, R. W. and D. C. Marsico, 1993: An improved real-time global
sea surface temperature analysis. J. Climate, 6, 768-774.
Reynolds, R. W. and T. S. Smith, 1993: Improved global sea surface
temperature analyses. J. Climate, accepted subject to revisions.
Scientific Plan for the TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response
Experiment, WCRP Publications Series, No. 3 Addendum, World Climate
Summary Report of the TOGA COARE International Data Workshop,
Toulouse, France, 2 - 11 August 1994, TOGA COARE International Project
Office, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 170 pages.
TOGA COARE Operations Plan, Working Version September 1992, TOGA COARE
International Project Office.
TOGA COARE Intensive Observing Period Operations Summary, TOGA COARE
International Project Office, University Corporation for Atmospheric
Creation and Review Dates
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-01-08