GOES Satellite Data - VISSR/VAS (GOES-7 and earlier)Entry ID: gov.noaa.class.PRE_GVAR
Abstract: ABSTRACT: The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series of satellites goal is to monitor the atmosphere for severe weather development such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms and hurricanes. The positioning of the GOES satellites at around 36,000 km (22,000 statute miles) above the equator at a fixed position above the earth allowed them to scan large geographic regions ... of the Western Hemisphere and as frequently as once every half hour. Coverage is typically provided by two GOES spacecraft, one at -75.0 Longitude (GOES East) and the other at -135.0 Longitude (GOES West). The Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) was flown aboard NOAA Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS-1 and SMS-2) and GOES-1 through GOES-3 and modified to become the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) flown aboard GOES-4 through GOES-7.
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION: The original GOES instrument was the Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR), which was an outgrowth of the spin scan radiometer flown aboard several of the Applications Technology Satellite series of NASA research satellites. The VISSR was first flown aboard SMS-1 and SMS-2 (Synchronous Meteorological Satellite), also NASA satellites, that were turned over to NOAA for operational use. GOES-1, GOES-2, and GOES-3 were operational satellites that flew the original VISSR instrument. GOES-4, GOES-5, GOES-6 and GOES-7 where flown with a modified instrument package called the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS). Pre GVAR data is archived in transmission modes: A, AA and AAA. Mode A was the earliest transmission mode used until GOES-7. Mode AA was primarily experimental. Mode AAA was in effect during GOES-7 lifetime. GOES-07 operated in 3 different sub-modes: VISSR, MSI, and DS.
CURRENTNESS REFERENCE: ground condition
Fees: Electronic download (FTP) of the data is free. There is a fee for copies of data on physical media. Optical disks are $25.00 per unit and magnetic tape is $100 per unit. Price does not include additional service and handling costs.
Purpose: PURPOSE: To measure radiant and solar reflected energy for use in monitoring weather patterns. The VISSR and VAS were designed to provide rapid continuous viewing of local areas for regional Earth and atmospheric monitoring.
(Click for Interactive Map)
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: UWI-MAD/SSEC > Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Dataset Title: GOES Satellite Data - VISSR/VAS (GOES-7 and earlier)
Dataset Release Date: 1974-05-
Dataset Release Place: Asheville, NC
Dataset Publisher: DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of CommerceOnline Resource: http://www.class.noaa.gov/nsaa/products/search?sub_id=0&datatype_fa...
Start Date: 1974-05-01Stop Date: 1996-01-11
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > INFRARED WAVELENGTHS > BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > INFRARED WAVELENGTHS > INFRARED IMAGERY
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > INFRARED WAVELENGTHS > INFRARED RADIANCE
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > INFRARED WAVELENGTHS > THERMAL INFRARED
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS > VISIBLE IMAGERY
SPECTRAL/ENGINEERING > VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS > VISIBLE RADIANCE
ISO Topic Category
Quality ATTRIBUTE ACCURACY REPORT: A quality assurance analysis is included in the processing. This entails an examination of the data for consistency and completeness. Data were also validated by visual examination of selected scenes.
LOGICAL CONSISTENCY REPORT: An error detection method employed in the data transmission involves a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).The sounding data from the ... VAS were used to compare the temperature profiles with other sources such as radiosondes and special network experiments
COMPLETENESS REPORT: The last of four optical encoder lamps on GOES-6 failed on January 21, 1989. There are some gaps in the data for times when the bulbs did not function properly, resulting in the use of the GOES-6 for collection of VISSR data only during those times. Most data are considered experimental.Data is missing between Sep 28, 1974 and Dec 31, 1977 in the CLASS database.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION: The real-time transmission of GOES VISSR and/or VAS data were received at the NESDIS Command and Data Acquisition Facility (CDA) station directly from the satellites, and processed by the Synchronous Data Buffer (SDB). The SDB reformats the data, determines the start of each line, performs a calibration of the IR data, brightness-enhances the visible data, adds grid and orbit/attitude information and retransmits the data back to a transponder on the GOES satellite for broadcast to various user stations. In reformatting the data, the SDB does an equal time to equal angle resampling to compensate for variations in the satellite spin rate. Therefore, the result is a constant number of data values per scan line corresponding to the nominal 100 rpm spin rate. The broadcast data rate is chosen such that the retransmission just occupies the time interval between real-time data bursts; i.e., the retransmission is accomplished while the instrument mirror on the satellite is viewing space between scans of the Earth (333 degrees of each spin is space view). The reduced bandwidth broadcast datastream is called the "stretched data". The format for the stretched data has changed 3 times during the archive period, and these formats are referred to as Mode A, AA, or AAA.The VAS data stream was routed to a VAS Image Processor (VIP) within the CDA station. The VIP reformatted, conducted quality checks, calibrated, and added navigational parameters to the data and then retransmitted it to the GOES satellites at 1.75 Mpbs, which in turn broadcasted the SVAS data to receiving stations at the University of Wisconsin. Data from the VAS Multi-Spectral Imaging mode and the Dwell Sounding mode were not "stretched". The spatial and temporal information is provided by the VISSR Image Registration and Gridding System (VIRGS) computing facility at NOAA and inserted into the stretched VAS format by the VIP.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION: NOAA's key downlink site for archive purposes was the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) in Madison, Wisconsin. SSEC has been recording and storing GOES data since 1978. Throughout the entire history of PRE_GVAR data archive, the data were recorded on Sony U-Matic cassettes. Around 2001, NCDC funded the "GOES Data Rescue Project". SSEC began transferring the data from the aging U-matic cassettes onto IBM 3590. During the rescue project, which lasted over 2 years, some of the data was transferred to NCDC's Hierarchical Data Storage System via FTP. The remainder of the rescued data was shipped on tapes. The transfer of the entire GOES database to NCDC was completed in late 2005.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION: During the rescue process, the CLASS (Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System) GOES Campaign was well underway. CLASS, formerly known as Satellite Active Archive and funded by NESDIS, had already amassed all of the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) Level 1b data for period of record, for online distribution and was ready to ingest the entire GOES archive from present backward. The transfer of historical GOES data into CLASS was completed by end 2006. During this time some errors were noticed with the filenames received from SSEC including incorrect dates/satellite in filename. Also, there are numerous duplicate files with varying content for the same scan times. The duplicate files are the direct result of the rescue project when multiple attempts were made to successfully transfer data from old to new media. In a recent database inventory check between SSEC, NCDC and CLASS file matching inconsistencies were noted. At this time (December 2007), any rectification of these inconsistencies is postponed until work is completed to restore each scan to one file. Estimated completion time is end of 2009.
PROCESS DATE: 199601
PROCESS DATE: 2005
PROCESS DATE: Not complete
Access Constraints ACCESS CONSTRAINTS: None
DISTRIBUTION LIABILITY: Disclaimer - While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
Use Constraints None
Data Set Progress
Distribution Format: Raw Native modes A, AA, or AAA formats available.
Fees: Please See Summary
Distribution Format: AREA - McIDAS
Fees: Please See Summary
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: (828) 271-4850 ext. 3183
Fax: (828) 271-4328
Email: NCDC.satorder at noaa.gov
Email: Axel.Graumann at noaa.gov
151 Patton Avenue, Room 120
Province or State: North Carolina
Postal Code: 28801-5001
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: (303) 497-5099
Fax: (303) 497-6513
Email: Anna.Milan at noaa.gov
325 Broadway, Mail Code E/GC4
Province or State: CO
Postal Code: 80305-3328
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2009-08-14
Last DIF Revision Date: 2011-11-02