Determination of Groundwater-Flow Direction and Rate Beneath Florida Bay, the Florida Keys and Reef TractEntry ID: USGS_SOFIA_fb-fk_grndwtr_flow
Abstract: The strategy of this study was to use artificial tracers to determine rate and direction of flow. Tracers were injected into well clusters, existing sewage treatment facilities, and sewage disposal wells. In addition to tracer studies groundwaters were collected for contamination analysis so as to provide a baseline against which the effects of population increase and success of future wastewater ... treatment facilities can be evaluated.
Treated sewage is injected into the limestone under the Florida Keys via on-site disposal systems (OSDs). There are 25,000 septic tank systems, approximately 5,000 cesspools, and approximately 1000 class 5 injection wells. Depths of injection wells ranges from 10 to 30 meters. Excessive algal growth, coral diseases and both marine grass and sponge mortality is perceived by the local population, NOAA, and EPA to be caused by sewage nutrients leaking from groundwater on both sides of the Florida Keys. Determining the rate and direction of saline groundwater movement beneath the Key, and the Florida Bay was considered critical to understanding the fate and effects of subsurface waste water disposal n the Florida Keys. The objective of this research was to determine the rate, direction of flow, and contamination levels of saline groundwater in the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. Contamination studies are necessary to determine if nutrient and other contaminant levels are rising and to provide a baseline of data for future decision making.
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Gene Shinn (retired) Chris Reich; Don Hickey; Ann Tihansky
Dataset Title: Determination of Groundwater-Flow Direction and Rate Beneath Florida Bay, the Florida Keys and Reef Tract
Dataset Release Date: 2005
Data Presentation Form: spreadsheetsOnline Resource: http://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/grndwtr_flow/
Start Date: 1995-07-01Stop Date: 2000-12-31
BIOSPHERE > TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS > WETLANDS
HUMAN DIMENSIONS > ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS > SEWAGE DISPOSAL
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GROUND WATER > GROUND WATER DISCHARGE/FLOW
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > GROUND WATER
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > CONTAMINANTS
TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > WATER QUALITY/WATER CHEMISTRY > NUTRIENTS
BIOSPHERE > AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS > WETLANDS
Access Constraints None
Use Constraints None
Data Set Progress
Distribution Size: 0.022
Distribution Format: MS Excel
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 727 803-8747 ext 3032
Fax: 727 803-2032
Email: creich at usgs.gov
600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
Province or State: FL
Postal Code: 33701
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Email: alicia.m.aleman at nasa.gov
Goddard Space Flight Center Code 610.2
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Shinn, E. A., Reese, R. S.; Reich, C. D., 1994, Fate and pathways of injection-well effluent in the Florida Keys, USGS Open-File Report, 94-276, Florida, U. S. Geological Survey.
Reich, C. D., 1996, Diver-operated manometer: a simple device for measuring hydraulic head in underwater wells, Journal of Sedimentary Rresearch, v. 66 n. ... 5, Tulsa, OK, S E P M Society for Sedimentary Research, Journal of Sedimentary Research table of contents and abstracts are open access. Full text articles are available to non-member subscribers or pay-per-view at two websites accessed from the JSR website.
Halley, R. B., Vacher, H. L.; Shinn, E. A., 1997, Geology and Hydrogeology of the Florida Keys, Developments in Sedimentology, Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands, Doorwerth, The Netherlands, Elsevier Science B. V., This chapter was originally published in Geology and Hydrology of Carbonate Islands, Developments in Sedimentology 54, edited by H. L. Vacher and T. Quinn.
Paul, J. H., Rose, J. B.; Brown, J.; Shinn, E. A.; Miller, S.; Farrah, S. R., 1995, Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in Key Largo, Florida, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 61, n. 6, Washington, DC, American Society for Microbiology, The full article may be downloaded from the AEM website.
Paul, J. H., Rose, J. B.; Jiang, S.; Kellogg, C.; Shinn, E. A., 1995, Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters and the subsurface aquifer in Key Largo, Florida, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Washington, DC, American Society for Microbiology, The full article may be downloaded from the AEM website.
Sacks, L. A., Tihansky, A. B., 1996, Geochemical and Isotopic Composition of Ground Water, with Emphasis on Sources of Sulfate, in the Upper Floridan Aquifer and Intermediate Aquifer System in Southwest Florida, USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report, 96-4146, Tallahassee, FL, U.S. Geological Survey.
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2008-01-11
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-06-02