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SAFARI 2000 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AEROSOLS, DRY SEASON 2000
Entry ID: s2k_aerosol_prop

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Summary
Abstract: The Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 (SAFARI 2000) provided an opportunity to study aerosol particles produced by savanna burning. We used analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), to study aerosol particles from several smoke and haze samples and from a set of cloud samples. These aerosol particle samples were collected using the University of Washington Convair CV-580 research aircraft (Posfai et al., 2003).Individual aerosol particles in smoke plumes from biomass fires and in regional hazes in southern Africa were studied using analytical transmission electron microscopy, which allowed detailed characterization of carbonaceous particle types in smoke and determination of changes in particle properties and concentrations during smoke aging. Based on composition, morphology, and microstructure, three distinct types of carbonaceous particles were present in the smoke: organic particles with inorganic (K-salt) inclusions; 'tar ball' particles; and soot. The relative number concentrations of organic particles were largest in young smoke, whereas tar balls were dominant in a slightly aged (~1 hour) smoke from a smoldering fire. Flaming fires emitted relatively more soot particles than smoldering fires, but soot was a minor constituent of all studied plumes. Further aging caused the accumulation of sulfate on organic and soot particles, as indicated by the large number of internally mixed organic/sulfate and soot/sulfate particles in the regional haze. Externally mixed ammonium sulfate particles dominated in the boundary layer hazes, whereas organic/sulfate particles were the most abundant type in the upper hazes. Apparently, elevated haze layers were more strongly affected by biomass smoke than those within the boundary layer. Based on size distributions and the observed patterns of internal mixing, we hypothesize that organic and soot particles are the cloud-nucleating constituents of biomass smoke aerosols. Sea-salt particles dominated in the samples taken in stratus clouds over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Namibia, whereas a distinct haze layer above the clouds consisted of aged biomass smoke particles.

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Description: SAFARI 2000 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AEROSOLS, DRY SEASON 2000


Geographic Coverage
 N: 5.0 S: -35.0  E: 60.0  W: 5.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: BUSECK, P.R.HOBBS, P.V.LI, J.POSFAI, M.SIMONICS, R.
Dataset Title: SAFARI 2000 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AEROSOLS, DRY SEASON 2000
Dataset Release Date: 2004
Dataset Release Place: Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
Dataset Publisher: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center
Data Presentation Form: Online Files
Dataset DOI: doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/725
Online Resource: http://mercury.ornl.gov/ornldaac/#fq=fileID:725


Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 2000-08-17
Stop Date: 2000-09-13


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > AFRICA > SOUTHERN AFRICA > SOUTH AFRICA


Science Keywords
ATMOSPHERE >AEROSOLS >AEROSOL PARTICLE PROPERTIES    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
ENVIRONMENT


Platform
CONVAIR CV-580    [Information]


Instrument
MICROSCOPES    [Information]


Project
EOSDIS >Earth Observing System Data Information System    [Information]
ESIP >Earth Science Information Partners Program    [Information]
SAFARI 2000 >The Southern African Regional Science Initiative Project    [Information]
CWIC >CEOS WGISS Integrated Catalog    [Information]


Keywords
HAZE
SOOT
EOSDIS
AEROSOLS
SULFATES
TAR BALLS
AGED SMOKE
SAFARI 2000
YOUNG SMOKE
SMOKE PLUMES
BLACK CARBON
ATOMIC CARBON
ATOMIC SULFUR
FLAMING FIRES
ATOMIC OXYGEN
SAVANNA FIRES
BIOMASS SMOKE
ATOMIC SILICON
ORGANIC CARBON
PARTICLE NUMBER
CV-580 AIRCRAFT
SAVANNA BURNING
ATOMIC CHLORINE
BIOMASS BURNING
ELEMENTAL CARBON
ATMOSPHERIC DATA
SMOLDERING FIRES
AMMONIUM SULFATE
ATOMIC POTASSIUM
ORGANIC PARTICLES
AEROSOL PARTICLES
AEROSOL MORPHOLOGY
AEROSOL COMPOSITION,
PARTICULATE EMISSIONS
CARBONACEOUS AEROSOLS
CARBONACEOUS PARTICLES
AEROSOL MICROSTRUCTURE
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS
PARTICLE ELEMENT COMPOSITIONS
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (TEM)
ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY (EELS)
ENERGY-DISPERSIVE X-RAY SPECTROMETRY (EDS)


Data Set Progress
COMPLETE


Data Center
THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY (ORNL) DISTRIBUTED ACTIVE ARCHIVE CENTER (DAAC)    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://daac.ornl.gov/
Dataset ID: 725

Data Center Personnel
Name: ORNL DAAC USER SERVICES OFFICE
Phone: (865) 574-7447
Email: uso at daac.ornl.gov
Contact Address:
ORNL DAAC User Services Office
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
City: Oak Ridge
Province or State: TN
Postal Code: 37831-6407
Country: USA


Personnel
P. R. BUSECK
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT


ORNL DAAC USER SERVICES OFFICE
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: (865) 574-7447
Email: uso at daac.ornl.gov
Contact Address:
ORNL DAAC User Services Office
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
City: Oak Ridge
Province or State: TN
Postal Code: 37831-6407
Country: USA



Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2004-09-13
Last DIF Revision Date: 2010-09-08



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