ARM Southern Great Plains, Atmospheric Profiling
Entry ID: SGPatmospheric_profiling

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Summary
Abstract: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global
change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ARM
scientists focus on obtaining field measurements and developing models to
better understand the processes that control solar and thermal infrared
radiative transfer in the atmosphere (especially in clouds) and at the earth's
surface.

The URL for the ARM Data Archive is "http://www.archive.arm.gov/". The URL for
general information about the ARM program is "http://www.arm.gov/". The data
stored by the ARM Archive includes numerous parameters about radiative flux,
meteorology, water vapor and clouds.

The U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) site was the first field measurement site
established by DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program.
Scientists are using the information obtained from the SGP to improve cloud and
radiative models and parameterizations and, thereby, the performance of
atmospheric general circulation models used for climate research. Deployment of
the first instrumentation to the SGP site occurred in the spring of 1992.
Additional instrumentation and data processing capabilities have been
incrementally added in the succeeding years. The SGP was chosen as the first
ARM field measurement site for several reasons including its relatively
homogenous geography and easy accessibility, wide variety of climatic and cloud
conditions, surface flux properties, and large seasonal variation in
temperature and specific humidity. It also already had a large, existing
network of weather and climate research and instrumentation. The SGP site
consists of in situ and remote-sensing instrument clusters arrayed across
approximately 55,000 square miles (143,000 square kilometers) in north-central
Oklahoma. The ARM SGP site is the largest and most extensive climate research
field site in the world. The heart of the SGP site is the heavily instrumented
Central Facility located on 160 acres of cattle pasture and wheat fields
southeast of Lamont, Oklahoma. A staff of 30 scientists and technicians collect
and monitor data from the Central Facility instruments and from smaller,
unmanned facilities throughout the site. The instruments throughout the site
automatically collect data on surface and atmospheric properties, routinely
providing data to the Site Data System, which is linked by high-speed
communications to the ARM Archive and Data Center. The Data Center acquires
additional data from other sources, such as National Weather Service satellite
and surface data, and provides tailored data packages to ARM Science Team
members.

Atmospheric profiling data is available from numerous locations at the SGP
site. Site descriptions are available at
"http://www.arm.gov/sites/sgp.stm". Detailed information on the
instruments used is at " http://www.arm.gov/instruments".

The following list contains the instrumentation used for atmospheric profiling
and the data available for sites at SGP.

Microwave Radiometer (MWR).
For complete MWR information, see
" http://www.arm.gov/instruments". The MWR provides
time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid
water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver.
That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid
water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies. A MWR is operated at
a frequency that is optimized for a particular atmospheric condition. For
example, different frequencies may be used under low water vapor conditions
while others may improve liquid water retrievals.

At the Central Facility (CF1; Lamont OK), MWR data are available for 1970-01-01
to present.
At Boundary Facilities in Hillsboro KS (BF1), Vici OK (BF4), and Morris OK
(BF5), MWR data are available for 1994-02-12 to present.
At the Boundary Facility in Purcell OK (BF6), MWR data are available for
1995-04-01 to present.
ARM data streams are coded as follows:
sgpmwrlos: MWR: water liquid and vapor along line of sight path
spgmwrtip: airmasses, brightness temperatures in TIP mode
sgp5mwravg: 5-minute average integrated vapor and liquid water
Additional data streams or value added products may be added in the future.

ARM data streams for quality measurement experiments (QME) are available:
sgpqmemwrcol: Derived: QME comparing column water from MWR vs. instrument model
sgpqmemwrlbl: Derived: QME comparing LBLRTM, MWR brightness temps. at 23.8 and
31.4 GHz
sgpqmemwrlblss: Derived: QME-LBLRTM, MWR bright. temps at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz,
scaled with lblsonde
sgpqmemwrprof: Derived: QME comparing MWR and sonde profiles of temperature and
water vapor
Additional data streams or value added products may be added in the future.

Balloone-Borne Sounding System (BBSS).
For complete BBSS information, see
" http://www.arm.gov/instruments". The BBSS provides
in-situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the
atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction. Pressure (hPa), Temperature
(degC), Relative Humidity (percent RH), Wind speed (m/s), and Wind direction
(deg) are measured as functions of time during a free-balloon ascent. Secondary
(derived) quantities included in the data stream, also measured as functions of
time, are Altitude (gpm), Dew Point (degC), Ascent Rate (m/s), Latitude of
Sonde (degN), Longitude of Sonde (degW), u-component of wind velocity (m/s),
and v-component of wind velocity (m/s).

At the Central Facility (CF1; Lamont OK), BBSS data are available for
1993-07-21 to present.
ARM data streams are coded as follows:
sgpsondeC1: BBSS meterological data profile
sgpsondewndcalcC1: Derived: calculated winds from the sondewrpn
sgpsondewnpnC1: BBSS: Vaisala-processed winds, pressure, temperature, and
relative humidity
sgpsondewrpnC1: BBSS: Vaisala winds, research pressure, temperature, and
relative humidity
Additional data streams or value added products may be added in the future.

Radar Wind Profiler and Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) (RWP915).
For complete RWP915 information, see
" http://www.arm.gov/instruments".
The RWP915 measures wind profiles from (nominally) 0.1 km to 5 km and virtual
temperature profiles from 0.1 km to 1.5 km. It operates by transmitting
electromagnetic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and
frequency of backscattered energy. Virtual temperatures are recovered by
transmitting an acoustic signal vertically and measuring the electromagnetic
energy scattered from the acoustic wavefront. The propagation speed of the
acoustic wave is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature.
The primary quantities measured with the system are the intensity and Doppler
frequency of backscattered radiation. The wind speed is determined from the
Doppler frequency of energy scattered from refractive index fluctuations
(caused primarily by moisture fluctuations but also by temperature
fluctuations) embedded within the atmosphere; the virtual temperature is
determined from the Doppler frequency of microwave energy scattered from
acoustic energy propagating through the atmosphere.

Data availability is as follows:
Central Facility (CF1; Lamont OK) for 2001-04-01 to present
Beaumont KS (IF1) from 1997-02-20 to present
Medicine Lodge KS (IF2) for 1997-03-04 to present
Meeker OK (IF3) from 1996-12-30 to present

ARM data streams are coded as follows:
sgp915rwptemp: virtual temperature profile data
sgp915rwptempcon: temperature profile data
sgp915rwptempmom: temperature profile data
sgp915rwptempspec: temperature profile data
sgprwptemp: 50 virtual temperature profiles at 50 and 916 MHz
sgp915rwpwind: wind profile data
sgp915rwpwindcon: wind profile data
sgp915rwpwindmom: wind profile data
sgp915rwpwindspec: wind profile data
Additional data streams or value added products may be added in the future.

Radar Wind Profiler and Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) (RWP50).
The RWP50 measures wind profiles from (nominally) 2 to 12 km and virtual
temperature profiles from 2 to 4 km. It operates by transmitting
electromagnetic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and
frequency of backscattered energy. Virtual temperatures are recovered by
transmitting an acoustic signal vertically and measuring the electromagnetic
energy scattered from the acoustic wavefront. The propagation speed of the
acoustic wave is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature.
The primary quantities measured with the system are the intensity and Doppler
frequency of backscattered radiation. The wind speed is determined from the
Doppler frequency of energy scattered from refractive index fluctuations
(caused primarily by temperature fluctuations) embedded within the atmosphere;
the virtual temperature is determined from the Doppler frequency of microwave
energy scattered from acoustic energy propagating through the atmosphere.

Data are available from the RWP50 at the Central Facility (CF1; Lamont OK) for
1997-05-19 to present.
ARM data streams are coded as follows:
sgp50rwptempC1: virtual temperature profile data
sgp50rwptempconC1: temperature profile data
sgp50rwptempmomC1: temperature profile data
sgp50rwptempspecC1: temperature profile data
sgprwptemp: 50 virtual temperature profiles at 50 and 915 MHz
sgp50rwpwind: wind profile data
sgp50rwpwindcon: wind profile data
sgp50rwpwindmomC1: wind profile data
sgp50rwpwindspecC1: wind profile data
Additional data streams or value added products may be added in the future.

Raman Lidar (RL).
For a complete description of the RL, visit
"http://www.arm.gov/instruments". The RL is an active,
ground-based laser remote sensing instrument that measures vertical profiles of
water-vapor mixing ratio and several cloud- and aerosol-related quantities.
Lidar (light detection and ranging) is the optical analog of radar, using
pulses of laser radiation to probe the atmosphere. This system is fully
computer automated, and will run unattended for many days following a brief
(~5-minute) startup period. The self-contained system (requiring only external
electrical power) is housed in a climate-controlled 8ft x 8ft x 20ft standard
shipping container.

The Raman Lidar has independent measurement channels that record range-resolved
backscatter signals from molecular water vapor, molecular nitrogen, and
combined Rayleigh and aerosol contributions (the latter at polarizations
parallel and perpendicular to the polarization of the laser beam). Primary
quantities obtained from these backscatter signals are range-resolved vertical
profiles of water-vapor mixing ratio (g/kg), aerosol scattering ratio
(unitless), and backscatter depolarization ratio (percent). Additional cloud-
and aerosol-related measurements can also be derived from the backscatter
signals.

RL data are available for the Central Facility (CF1; Lamont OK) from 1996-06-03
to present.
ARM data streams are coded as follows:
sgprlC1: raw backscattered profiles at 355, 387, and 408 nm
sgprllogC1: surface log information
sgp30rlprofC1: derived 30-min RL profiles-water vapor mixing, aerosols,
scattering and depol.
sgp10rlprofC1: derived 10-min profiles of water vapor mixing, aerosols,
scattering and depol.
sgp10rlprofasr1ferrC1: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical
thickness
sgp10rlprofbe1turnC1: best-estimate state of the atmosphere product from the
RL and AERI (atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer) + GOES (geostationary
operational environmental satellite) retrievals
sgp10rlprofdep1turnC1: depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical
depths
sgp10rlprofmrlturnC1: water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity profiles,
along with PWV
sgp10rlprofext1ferrC1: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical
thickness from the RL
Additional data streams or value added products may be added in the future.

Related URL
Link: GET RELATED SERVICE METADATA (SERF)
Description: NCVweb is an interactive web-based tool for viewing atmospheric radiation
measurement (ARM) data.


Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: This catalog lists the data streams that are currently available from the ARM
Archive. The data streams are listed by file format type (i.e, CDF, HDF, RAW,
JPG, ASC, and Other) and then by the site where the data are collected. Each
list contains the name of the data streams in alphanumeric order, the number of
files within the data stream, the minimum data date, and the maximum data date.
The sites that have the word development in parenthesis are data processes
which are operated during the final phases of implementation of a data source,
resulting in data which are labeled as Development. Development data are
frequently available to users, but additional information about the operating
conditions and potential for errors must be considered. The files in CDF format
are also listed in preformatted lists for those browsers that have difficulty
handling large html tables. The information in this catalog is updated about
once a month.


Geographic Coverage
 N: 37.28 S: 34.985  E: -95.862  W: -99.218

Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Wanda Ferrell, Ted Cress, Thomas Ackerman
Dataset Title: ARM Southern Great Plains, Atmospheric Profiling
Data Presentation Form: netCDF files
Online Resource: http://www.arm.gov


Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1993-07-21


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > KANSAS > HILLSBORO, ARM SGP BOUNDARY FACILITY 1 (B1)
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > KANSAS > BEAUMONT, ARM SGP INTERMEDIATE FACILITY 1 (I1)
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > KANSAS > MEDICINE LODGE, ARM SGP INTERMEDIATE FACILITY 2 (I2)
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > OKLAHOMA
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > OKLAHOMA > VICI, ARM SGP BOUNDARY FACILITY 4 (B4)
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > OKLAHOMA > MORRIS, ARM SGP BOUNDARY FACILITY 5 (B5)
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > OKLAHOMA > PURCELL, ARM SGP BOUNDARY FACILITY 6 (B6)
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > OKLAHOMA > LAMONT, ARM SGP CENTRAL FACILITY 1 (C1)
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > OKLAHOMA > MEEKER, ARM SGP INTERMEDIATE FACILITY 3 (I3)


Science Keywords
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE >ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE >AIR TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR >DEW POINT TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR >HUMIDITY    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR >WATER VAPOR    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >CLOUDS >CLOUD MICROPHYSICS >CLOUD LIQUID WATER/ICE    [Definition]
ATMOSPHERE >ATMOSPHERIC WINDS >WIND PROFILES    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE


Instrument
LIDAR >Light Detection and Ranging    [Information]
RADIOSONDES    [Information]
RASS >Radio Acoustic Sounding System    [Information]
RAWINSONDES    [Information]
WIND PROFILERS    [Information]
MWR >Microwave Water Radiometer    [Information]


Project
ARM >Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Project    [Information]


Quality
One of the goals of the ARM Program is to provide data streams of reasonable
quality for scientific research. Traditionally, data quality issues have been
addressed within ARM at several levels, including by instrument mentors, site
scientists, value added product scientists, and Science Team members at large.
Maintaining data quality for a program of the size and complexity of ARM is a
significant challenge. Efforts toward this end have matured and evolved over
the life of the program. The ARM Program Data Quality (DQ) Office has the
responsibility for ensuring that quality assurance results are communicated to
(1) data users so that they may make informed decisions when using the data,
and (2) ARM's Site Operations and Engineers to facilitate improved instrument
performance and thereby minimize the amount of unacceptable data collected. For
additional information,
visit http://www.arm.gov/data/data_quality.stm.


Access Constraints
Data of common interest from external sources are shared whenever possible, but
some sources restrict secondary distribution of data. In these cases, ARM will
seek specific allowances to distribute such data to members of the ARM Science
Team, but will observe restrictions on further distribution from the Archive if
required.


Use Constraints
Use-constraints, if any, are provided in Data Quality Reports sent with the
data files when data are requested. The automatic inclusion of a data
originator as a co-author is not insisted upon in the ARM program, but the
source of any data should be clearly recognized either as a co-author or
through an appropriate acknowledgment. The ARM Program should be acknowledged
in publications as the programmatic origin of the field program. ARM-funded
investigators will use the following acknowledgment: "This research was
supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S.
Department of Energy (under grant or contract number - if appropriate) as part
of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program." The U.S. Department of
Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program should be appropriately
acknowledged in publications resulting from collaborative efforts in which ARM
data or facilities were used. ARM-funded principal investigators will give
proper acknowledgment to cooperating or collaborating programs in those cases
where data originating therein are being used.


Keywords
Department of Energy
DOE
Global Change
Climate Change


Originating Center


Data Center
ARM Archive, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, U. S. Department of Energy    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.archive.arm.gov

Data Center Personnel
Name: ARM USER SERVICES
Phone: 888-ARM-DATA (888-276-3282) or 865-241-4851
Fax: 865-574-4665
Email: armarchive at ornl.gov
Contact Address:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Building 1507, MS 6407
P.O. Box 2008
City: Oak Ridge
Province or State: TN
Postal Code: 37831-6407
Country: USA



Distribution
Distribution_Media: FTP or request
Distribution_Size: Variable
Distribution_Format: netCDF
Fees: None


Personnel
JAMES C LILJEGREN
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: (630) 252-9540
Fax: (630) 252-9792
Email: liljegren at anl.gov
Contact Address:
Argonne National Laboratory
ER Division, Bldg. 203
9700 South Cass Ave.
City: Argonne
Province or State: IL
Postal Code: 60439
Country: USA


PETER J LAMB
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: (405) 325-3041
Fax: (405) 325-7614
Email: plamb at ou.edu
Contact Address:
University of Oklahoma
CIMMS Department
100 E. Boyd, Rm. 1110
City: Norman
Province or State: OK
Postal Code: 73019
Country: USA


RAYMOND MCCORD
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: 865-574-7827
Fax: 865-574-4665
Email: mccordra at ornl.gov
Contact Address:
Building 1507, MS 6407
P.O. Box 2008
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
City: Oak Ridge
Province or State: TN
Postal Code: 37831-6407
Country: USA


Publications/References
Ackerman, T. P. and G. M. Stokes. 2003. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement
Program. Physics Today 56: 38-44. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation
Measurement Program (ARM). 1996. U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/ER-0670T.
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan. 1990. DOE/ER-0441. U.S.
Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Washington, D.C. NTIS
DE90008108.

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2003-10-01
Last DIF Revision Date: 2005-12-22

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