GISP2 Atmospheric Sampling Site (ATM) Aerosols, 2 YearsEntry ID: NOAA_NCDC_PALEO_GISP2-ATM
Abstract: This data consists of the measured aerosol concentrations from the atmospheric
sampling site (ATM) during the 1993 and 1994 summer field seasons. The
concentrations are in units of nanomole per cubic meter. The times in the
tables are expressed as local Greenland time (i.e. Greenwich Mean Time - 2
Aerosol filter sampling was conducted during the summers ... of 1993 and 1994 at
the solar powered remote atmospheric sampling site located 28 km southwest of
the GISP2 camp (72.58N, 38.46W, 3205 m) in 1993 and 10 km southwest of the
GISP2 site in 1994. Particles were collected on 90 mm Teflon Zefluor filters
(1 mm pore size). The filter holders were open faced and covered with a large
polyethylene bucket to prevent the collection of snow on the filter. Vacuum
pumps were located in a trench beneath the surface. Airflow was measured using
a Rockwell gas meter. The filters were run for approximately 16 hours each day
during routine sampling periods excluding episodes of fog. During intensive
sampling periods filters were changed every eight hours. In all cases, the
flow rate was approximately 85 l min-1. All handling of the filters was done by
personnel wearing clean room garb and shoulder length plastic gloves. Filters
were removed from the filter holders in the field and stored in airtight Pyrex
bottles. All filters were kept frozen until analysis at the Laboratoire de
Glaciologie et Geophysique de l'Environement (LGGE) in Grenoble, France. In
order to minimize the evaporation of volatile aerosols on the filter,
extraction took place in a clean hood in a cold room at -12o C. First, 1.0 ml
of ultra pure methanol was added to the bottle to wet the filter. Then 9.0 ml
of deionized water were added to the bottle to dissolve the soluble particles.
Secondary extractions were run on 5 of the 155 filters from the 1994 field
season. The average efficiency of the primary extraction was determined to be
93% based on the amount of soluble ions in the secondary extraction. The
filter extracts were analyzed by ion chromatography for fluoride, lactate,
acetate, glycolate, formate, methane sulfonate, chloride, nitrate, sulfate,
oxalate, sodium, potassium, ammonium, magnesium, and calcium by ion
chromatography. Detection limits for all three chemical species were
calculated as 3 times the standard deviation of the amount of material on the
field blanks divided by the volume of air drawn through each filter. While
each filter sample had its own detection limits based on the filtered air
volume, the mean aerosol concentration detection limits for 1993 and 1994 are
summarized in the detection limit table. The atmospheric concentrations were
calculated by subtracting the mean chemical mass on the blank filters from the
mass on the sample filter.
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Dibb, J.E., and J.L. Jaffrezo
Dataset Title: ATM aerosol concentrations
Dataset Series Name: Greenland Summit Ice Cores
Dataset Release Date: 1997
Dataset Release Place: Boulder, CO
Dataset Publisher: WDC/Paleoclimatology
Other Citation Details: National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado at BoulderOnline Resource: ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/greenland/summit/gis...
Start Date: 1993-05-23Stop Date: 1994-08-10
ISO Topic Category
Data Set Progress
Distribution Media: online ftp, www
Distribution Format: ascii
Dibb, J.E., and J.L. Jaffrezo. 1997. Air-snow exchange investigations at
Summit, Greenland: An overview. Journal of Geophysical Research 102:26795
Bergin, M.H., S.N. Pandis, C.I. Davidson, J.L. Jaffrezo, J.E. Dibb, A.G.
Russell, and H.D. Kuhns. 1996. Modeling of the processing and removal of
trace gas and aerosol species by Arctic radation fogs and ... comparison with
measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 101:14465-14478.
Bergin, M.H., C.I. Davidson, J.E. Dibb, J.L. Jaffrezo, H.D. Huhns, and S.N.
Pandis. 1995. A simple model to estimate atmospheric concentrations of
aerosol chemical species based on snow core chemistry at Summit, Greenland.
Geophysical Research Letters 22:3517-3520.
Bergin, M.H., J.L. Jaffrezo, C.I. Davidson, J.E. Dibb, S.N. Pandis, R.
Hillamo, W. Maenhaut, H.D. Kuhns, and T. Makela. 1995. The contributions of
snow, fog, and dry deposition to the summer flux of anions and cations at
Summit, Greenland. Journal of Geophysical Research 100:16275-16288.
Legrand, M.R., and M. De Angelis. 1995. Origins and variations of light
carboxylic acids in polar precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research
Dibb, J.E., R.W. Talbot, and M.H. Bergin. 1994. Soluable acidic species in
air and snow at Summit, Greenland. Geophysical Research Letters 21:1627
Jaffrezo, J.L., C.I. Davidson, M.R. Legrand, and J.E. Dibb. 1994. Sulfate
and MSA in the air and snow on the Greenland ice sheet. Journal of
Geophysical Research 99:1241-1253.
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2005-05-27
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-01-21