Record Search Query: [Keyword='Soil Moisture']
ESAP Model: Statistical software package for estimating field scale spatial salinity patterns from electromagnetic induction signal data
Entry ID: USDA_ARS_ESAP
Abstract: Each program in this ESAP software suite contains a number of features designed
to help perform the various components of the soil salinity assessment process,
1. ESAP-RSSD (Response Surface Sampling Design software)
Used to generate optimal sampling designs for stochastic calibration
models based on conductivity survey data. The following capabilities listed
below have ... been incorporated into the RSSD program:
-Ability to process grid or transect data (i.e., can be used to
process EM-38, EM-31, Verris 3100, or Mobile 4-Electrode types of signal data)
-Ability to handle arbitrarily large survey sizes (up to 30,000
sites per field)
-Allow for interactive validation of signal data
-Ability to handle either 1 or 2 signal readings per survey site
-Can be used to generate calibration sample size of 6, 12, or 20
sites per field, or allow user to enter and record a custom sampling design
-Can adjust sampling design based on signal variability (i.e.,
2. ESAP-Calibrate (Conductivity to Salinity Calibration software)
Used to convert raw conductivity data to soil salinity data via either
stochastic calibration or deterministic techniques (i.e., direct MLR estimation
and/or the Dual Pathway Parallel Conductance equation, a.k.a. the Rhoades
Additional capabilities currently include the ability to:
-Use stochastic calibration models to predict levels of secondary
soil properties (provided secondary sample data has been acquired)
-Use deterministic DPPC model to estimate theoretical strength of
correlations between raw conductivity and ECe, SP, volumetric H2o, and/or other
secondary sample data which may have been acquired during the sampling process
-Produce 1D profile data graphs and perform bivariate profile data
-Fully automate the stochastic calibration (regression modeling)
3. ESAP-SaltMapper (1-D Transect and 2-D raster mapping software)
Used to generate 1-D transect and 2-D raster maps of raw conductivity,
estimated soil salinity, and/or estimated secondary soil physical properties
(i.e., designed accept input files from either ESAP-RSSD or ESAP-Calibrate).
The ESAP-SigDPA program is a signal data preprocessing program designed
to operate on raw Conductivity/GPS data files (i.e., Trimble output ASCII
sensor files, Sandia XYZ files, etc.). You can use this program to organize and
clean up your raw data files, remove outlier observations, and/or to correctly
assign row numbers to transect rows.
5. ESAP-DPPC Calculator
This simple-to-use Calculator program can be used to convert insertion
4-probe conductivity readings into soil salinity estimates, given knowledge of
the corresponding soil temperature, texture, and water content levels. It is
based on the methodology develped by Rhoades (1992), and extended by Lesch &
[Summary provided by the USDA.]
Lesch, S.M., D.J. Strauss and J.D. Rhoades. 1995a. Spatial prediction of
soil salinity using electromagnetic induction techniques: 1. Statistical
prediction models: A comparison of multiple linear regression and cokriging.
Water Resour. Res. 31:373-386.
Lesch, S.M., D.J. Strauss and J.D. Rhoades. 1995b. Spatial prediction of
soil salinity using electromagnetic induction techniques: 2. An efficient
spatial sampling algorithm suitable for multiple linear regression model
identification and estimation. Water Resour. Res. 31:3387-398.
Lesch, S.M., J. Herrero and J.D. Rhoades. 1998. Monitoring for temporal
changes in soil salinity using electromagnetic induction techniques. Soil Sci.
Soc. of Am. J. 62:232-242.
Lesch, S.M., J.D. Rhoades, and D.L. Corwin. 2000. The ESAP Version 2.01r
user manual and tutorial guide. Research Report #146. George E. Brown Jr.,
Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA, 153pp. (currently under review)
Rhoades, J.D. 1992. Instrumental field methods of salinity appraisal, pp.
231-48, in Advances in measurement of soil physical properties: Bring theory
into practice. G.C. Topp, W.D. Reynolds, and R.E. Green (Eds.). SSSA Special
Publ. no.30. ASA, CSSA, and SSA, Madison, WI.
Rhoades, J.D., F. Chanduvi, and S.M. Lesch. 1999. Soil salinity
assessment: Methods and interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements.
FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper #57, Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Lesch, S.M., Corwin, D.L., 2003. Predicting EM/soil property correlation
estimates via the Dual Pathway Parallel Conductance model. Agron. J. 95,
Lesch, S.M., 2004. Sensor-directed response surface sampling designs for
characterizing spatial variation in soil properties. Comput. Electron. Agric.,
(accepted for publication: due out in fall 2004).
Creation and Review Dates