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Sea Level Affects Marshes Model Visualization
Entry ID: SLAMM
Abstract: Efficiently and effectively presenting the large volume of geospatially-referenced, gridded data output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) for each sea-level rise (SLR) scenario time-series is a challenge. For most studies, an output file is produced for each of 5 different dates in a time-series (i.e., Base Year, 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100) for each different scenario of sea level ... rise (e.g., IPCC A1B Mean, IPCC A1B Max, and 1m). When examining these outputs, interested parties logically most often want to view two types of combinations of these 15 different data layers: "same scenario, different date", and "same date, different scenario", which in sum result in 45 unique pairs of simulation output.
While summary tables provide the means to present SLAMM output in a condensed form, the spatial context of where the changes occur is lost. Maps of the entire study region displayed at a resolution sufficient to examine local impacts are large and unwieldy to place side by side for comparison, especially in digital format. Making the raw, gridded output data publicly-available is not a viable solution for the researcher or layperson lacking GIS skills, GIS software, or persons with those resources but lacking time.
Image Matters LLC developed the initial version of the "SLAMM-View" web-mapping application to solve this geospatial accessibility problem. SLAMM-View 1.0 portrayed pairs of simulation results in conjunction with other thematic layers which provide context. SLAMM-View 1.0 allowed the user to choose one of the 45 output pairs in a dual "live" map display: either from the same year (e.g., 2100) but from different scenarios (e.g., a 0.5 m SLR and a 1 m SLR), or from different years within the same scenario (e.g., base year 2000 and year 2100, both under a 1 m SLR). The zooming and panning tools allowed the user to focus the inquiry on their particular locality of interest, be it a large region encompassing the entire Georgia coastline, or a small barrier island. One unique aspect of this web-mapping tool, vital to facilitating a comparison between the selected pair of simulation results, was that the dual maps are geographically-linked: zooming or panning in one map caused an identical action in the other map.
SLAMM-View 2.0 was designed to build upon the best innovations of the initial version, and to improve user-friendliness by employing a guided workflow approach, to direct the user through the necessary choices to arrive at the desired visualization and analysis result. In addition to the guided workflow, two other primary features were added: 1) a Multi-Map view that provides the simultaneous comparison of SLAMM simulation results through time and between output from different scenarios; and 2) Analysis tools that provide a summary (and printable) Report that provides absolute and percentagewise changes for each SLAMM cover class through time for each scenario.
SLAMM-View 2.0 utilizes a combination of server and client software (Java and Java-script) based on Image Matters' userSmarts® technology. The ACSII formatted SLAMM output was converted to PNG (Portable Network Graphics), an extensible file format for the lossless, portable, well-compressed storage of raster images. This provides for fast rendering of the large gridded maps over the Internet without any reduction in the detail when viewed at local scales. The application accesses contextual layers such as state and county boundaries, roads, and NWI wetlands via web mapping services (OGC WMS), with adjustable layer transparency and a layer control view that allows users to order and turn these ancillary layers on and off. SLAMM-View was developed to support Firefox, as well as both Internet Explorer 6, 7, and 8 browsers.
Access Constraints None
Use Constraints The Authors of the SLAMM studies and/or the SLAMM-View application are the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Warren Pinnacle Consulting Inc., Image Matters LLC, The Nature Conservancy, and the National Wildlife Federation. The Authors provide the information on this page, and/or the SLAMM model output data presented within the SLAMM-View application, for your personal use "as is." We gather ... information from different sources and agencies to give the users a wider selection of geographic themes as context for the SLAMM output. The areas depicted by these maps are approximate, and are not necessarily accurate to surveying or engineering standards. The maps shown here are for illustration purposes only and may not be suitable for highly localized site-specific decision making. We do not suggest that information found here be used for making financial or any other commitments. We provide this information with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be accurate, correct or complete. Any conclusions drawn from such information are the responsibility of the user. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy, correctness and timeliness of materials presented anywhere within these pages, The Authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, even if The Authors are advised of the possibility of such damage.
Availability of The Authors' Internet services is not guaranteed. Applications, servers, and network connections may be unavailable at any time for maintenance or unscheduled outages. Outages may be of long duration. Do not create dependencies on these services for critical needs.
THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND/OR ANY OTHER TYPE WHETHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. In no event shall The Authors become liable to users of these data, or any other party, for any loss or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages, including but not limited to time, money or goodwill, arising from the use or modification of the data.
To assist The Authors in the maintenance of the data, users should provide The Authors information concerning errors or discrepancies found in using the data using the E-mail contact addresses listed below.
Please acknowledge the appropriate author as the source when SLAMM output data or the SLAMM-View application is used in the preparation of reports, papers, publications, maps, or other products.
Craft C, Clough J, Ehman J, Guo H, Joye S, Machmuller M, Park R, and Pennings S. "Effects of Accelerated Sea Level Rise on Delivery of Ecosystem Services Provided by Tidal Marshes: A Simulation of the Georgia (USA) Coast." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. In press.
Glick, Clough, et al. Sea-level Rise and Coastal Habitats in the Pacific Northwest An Analysis for Puget Sound, Southwestern Washington, and Northwestern Oregon July 2007 http://www.nwf.org/News-and-Magazines/Media-Center/Reports/Archive/...
National Wildlife Fed ’n et al., An Unfavorable Tide: Global Warming, Coastal Habitats and Sportfishing in Florida 4, 6 (2006). http://www.nwf.org/News-and-Magazines/Media-Center/Reports/Archive/...
Galbraith, H., R. Jones, R.A. Park, J.S. Clough, S. Herrod-Julius, B. Harrington, and G. Page. 2003. Global Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: Potential Losses of Intertidal Habitat for Shorebirds. In Ecological Forecasting: New Tools for Coastal and Marine Ecosystem Management. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 1 (Vallette-Silver and Scavia eds). Silver Springs, MD.
Galbraith, H., R. Jones, R.A. Park, J.S. Clough, S. Herrod-Julius, B. Harrington, and G. Page. 2002. Global Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: Potential Losses of Intertidal Habitat for Shorebirds. Waterbirds 25:173-183.
Park, R.A., J.K. Lee, and D. Canning. 1993. Potential Effects of Sea Level Rise on Puget Sound Wetlands. Geocarto International 8(4):99-110.
Lee, J.K., R.A. Park, and P.W. Mausel. 1992. Application of Geoprocessing and Simulation Modeling to Estimate Impacts of Sea Level Rise on the Northeast Coast of Florida. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 58:11:1579-1586.
Titus, J.G., R.A. Park, S.P. Leatherman, J.R. Weggel, M.S. Greene, P.W. Mausel, M.S. Trehan, S. Brown, C. Grant, and G.W. Yohe. 1991. Greenhouse Effect and Sea Level Rise: Loss of Land and the Cost of Holding Back the Sea. Coastal Management 19:2:171-204.
Park, R.A., J. Lee, P.W. Mausel, and R.C. Howe. 1991. Using Remote Sensing for Modeling the Impacts of Sea Level Rise. World Resource Review 3:2:184-205.
Lee, J.K., R.A. Park, P.W. Mausel, and R.C. Howe. 1991. GIS-related Modeling of Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Areas. Proceedings of GIS/LIS '91 Conference, October 28-November 11, 1991, Atlanta, Georgia, Vol. 1, pp. 356-367.
Park, R.A., J. Lee, P.W. Mausel, and R.C. Howe. 1991. Predicting Impacts of Sea Level Rise with a GIS-based Simulation Model. State of Indiana Geographic Information System Conference Proceedings. University GIS Alliance, Indianapolis, November 15-16, 1990, pp. 74-83.
Park, R.A. 1991. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Health and Environment, U.S. House of Representatives. Global Climate Change and Greenhouse Emissions, Serial No. 102-54, pp. 171-182.
Park, R.A. 1990. Implications of Response Strategies for Water Quality. In Changing Climate and the Coast Volume 1: Adaptive Responses and Their Economic, Environmental, and Institutional Implications, edited by J.G. Titus, 209-216. Report to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Park, R.A., M.S. Trehan, P.W. Mausel, and R.C. Howe. 1989a. The Effects of Sea Level Rise on U.S. Coastal Wetlands. In The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States: Appendix B - Sea Level Rise, edited by J.B. Smith and D.A. Tirpak, 1-1 to 1-55. EPA-230-05-89-052. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Park, R.A., M.S. Trehan, P.W. Mausel, and R.C. Howe. 1989b. Coastal Wetlands in the Twenty-first Century: Profound Alterations Due to Rising Sea Level. In Wetlands: Concerns and Successes, edited by David W. Fisk, 71-80. Bethesda, Maryland: American Water Resources Association.
Park, R.A., M.S. Trehan, P.W. Mausel, and R.C. Howe. 1989c. The Effects of Sea Level Rise on U.S. Coastal Wetlands and Lowlands. Final Report for Cooperative Agreement CR814578–01, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HRI Report 164, Indianapolis, Indiana: Holcomb Research Institute, Butler University, 48 pp. + 789 pp. in appendices.
Park, R.A. 1989b. Environmental Effects of Sea-Level Rise. Final report on EPA 75–03, Fairfax, Virginia: ICF, Incorporated, 41 pp.
Armentano, T.V., R.A. Park, and C.L. Cloonan. 1988. Impacts on Wetlands Throughout the United States. In Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise, and Coastal Wetlands, edited by J.G. Titus, 87-149. EPA–230–05–86–013. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, pp87-152.
Park, R.A., T.V. Armentano, and C.L. Cloonan. 1986a. Predicting the Impact of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Systems. In Supplementary Proceedings for the 1986 Eastern Simulation Conference, 149-153. Norfolk, Virginia.
Park, R.A., T.V. Armentano, and C.L. Cloonan. 1986b. Predicting the Effects of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Wetlands. In Effects of Changes in Stratospheric Ozone and Global Climate, Vol. 4: Sea Level Rise, edited by J.G. Titus, 129-152. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
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