This data set reports biomass from small stems and non-woody vegetation measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment. The study location was Fazenda Vitoria, 6.5-km northwest of the town of Paragominas, Para, Brazil, in a 6-year old secondary-growth forest. Vegetation life-forms with diameters less than or equal to 2 cm (grasses, herbs, vines and dead ... material) were destructively sampled in November 1999, June 2000, June 2001, July 2003, July 2004, and July 2005. All data are provided in a single comma-separated file. The site was divided into three blocks with four treatment plots (each 20m x 20m) located in each block (3 reps x 4 treatments = 12 plots). Three of the twelve plots were fertilized with nitrogen (100 kg N/ha as urea), three were fertilized with phosphorus (50 kg P/ha as superphosphate), three were fertilized with both nitrogen and phosphorus. The remaining three plots were not fertilized and served as the experimental control.