This dataset describes the Arctic component of the marine invertebrate collection of the Zoological Institute RAN (in Russian; in English: ZIN RAS Russian Academy of Sciences), one of the largest in the world. Overall, this collection contains over 100.000 samples of 26.000 specimens of marine invertebrates; its current version (version 31st August 2007) consists of 2519 stations, from 61 ... expeditions done with 48 vessels in 4 oceans, 16 seas (for the Arctic:Barents Sea, Bering Sea, Central Arctic Basin, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, Norwegian Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, White Sea, Arctic Russian Seas), 24 bays, and 59 islands by 13 institutes. One should note that the actual collection is bigger than the samples (Probes) analyzed and what eventually enters the database as presented here. Data included in this dataset were collected in the field from 1861 to 2004. The creation of the collection database on invertebrates, which started in 1987, is still prospective, ongoing and tries to study biocoenotic relationships and marine fauna ecosystems in more detail. In the course of the organization of the faunistic, ecological and collection data, the informational retrieval systems OCEAN (Arctic species list), ZOOCOD (Software system by ZIN for the creation of a taxonomy; following system of Malakhov to the class level) and ECOANT (same as OCEAN but for Antarctica) were designed at ZISP (English name for Zoological Institute St. Petersburg; ZIN in Russian). Geo-referencing for old cruises was done manually using Russian Nautical charts of unknown spatial accuracy (2-4 decimals, or better, are given). Locations were taken according to ship log and navigation plan (marshroute). From the 1970s onwards modern navigation was used on large ships, e.g. Furuno Navigation and GPS systems. A sextant was used before, and other navigation systems of that time. Some sta tions were marked manually, e.g. by coastal features; GPS was used after 1980. No one consistent spatial accuracy is possible to provide for historical records; for details the database authors need to be contacted. This dataset exist in a dBase format, and was originally designed in FoxPro and later with MySQL. The taxonomy followed the Russian school, and was displayed with WORMS (and ITIS for comparison) towards a consistent species list and agreed taxonomies. The current database version includes over 133 species, consisting of only the ones that are completely identified, e.g. at least identified to genus level; few are additionally identified further. In this data set, the brittle stars are very well covered, so are cumacea, bivalves, chitons, starfishes, and holothurians. Amphiphods are covered partly. The rest of the benthos is not covered, but planned for a work up over the future. More data are constantly added in subsequent versions of the database. This database consists as well of an external and very valuable bibliography related to the database subject, species and Russian Arctic (benthic) research with 761 records in a dbf format. This component deals with specific Russian literature on benthos in Russian with translated titles in English and the transliteration of the source and authors from cyrillic into latin letters. This information will be linked later with OCEAN and ZOOCOD systems, e.g. for first author and latin names. As of December 4, 2006 the official name is - Arctic benthic invertebrate collection of the Zoological Institute of RAS The standard version is ABIC-ZIN (Arctic Benthos Invertebrate Collection) 31.08.2007. Igor Smirnov lead the data base development, Boris Sirenko did the paper version of the publication. For biological and administrative purposes, the term Arctic includes the northern hemisphere, 0 degree northwards (but without Russian Far East (Sea of Okhotsk and Japan Sea)).
To asse ss species composition, abundance and distribution of the invertebrate fauna of the Arctic Region.
ATTRIBUTE ACCURACY REPORT: Qualitative and quantitative sampling of animals was done according to convention using various tools, followed by sorting, identification and preservations. Accuracy for most datasets was not assessed in quantitative terms.
Locations were taken according to ship log and Navigation plan (marshroute). From the 1970s ... onwards modern navigation was used on large ships, e.g. Furuno Navigation systems. A sextant was used before, and other navigation systems of that time. Some stations were marked manually, e.g. by coastal features. No one consistent accuracy is possible to provide for historical records; for details contact database authors.
LOGICAL CONSISTENCY REPORT: This is a heterogenous dataset. Not all the specimen used the same procedures at all sites and for all species. Data were analyzed from the field collection, probes and then worked up by species. For details, it is advise to confirm with data holders.
COMPLETENESS REPORT: Not all species and samples are fully processed, yet. This will affect presence and absence information alike. The current dataset consists of 133 species. Only the complete ones, at least identified to Genus level, and few to the Genus-Species level, are included. New ones are constantly added in subsequent versions of the database.
Geo-referencing was done manually using Russian Nautical charts of unknown spatial accuracy (2 -4 decimals, or better, are given). Locations were taken according to ship log and Navigation plan (marshroute). From the 1970s onwards modern navigation was used on large ships, e.g. Furuno Navigation and GPS systems. Sextant was used before, and other navigation systems of that time. Some stations were marked manually, e.g. by coastal features; GPS was used afterwards. No one consistent accuracy is possible to provide for historical records; for details database authors need to be contacted.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION: See Sirenko B.I., ed. 2001. List of species of free-living invertebrates of Eurasian Arctic seas and adjacent deep waters. In: Explorations of the fauna of the seas. 51(59). St.Petersburg: 1-132. Station selection depended on the goals of the expedition, opportunity, weather, gear, circumstances etc. Collection gear depended on type and size of species/object, e.g. dredge, trawls, net, grab, trap, box cores (only on Polar Stern). Species preservation was usually in 4% Formaldehyd (final concentration) in the field, with a subsequent transfer to 80% Ethanol 80% for benthic species. Species identification was done by experts in the field (preliminary) or in the lab by ZIN staff. Mostly, samples were sorted and identified before preservation. Most specimens are kept at the Zoological Institute RAS.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION: Updated metadata record processed for dataset 2006B3.
SOURCE USED CITATION ABBREVIATION: Sirenko B.I., ed. 2001. List of species of free-living invertebrates of Eurasian Arctic seas and adjacent deep waters. In: Explorations of the fauna of the seas. 51(59). St.Petersburg: 1-132.
None. Contacting data owners is highly recommended for valid interpretation of these data. Updates are coming forward.
Do not redistribute to third parties.
ZIN RAS or ArcOD shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. These data and related graphics (i.e. GIF or JPG format files) are not legal documents and are not intended to be used as such. The information contained in these data is dynamic and may change ... over time. The data are not better than the original sources from which they were derived. It is the responsibility of the data user to use the data appropriately and consistent within the limitations of geospatial data in general and these data in particular. The related graphics are intended to aid the data user in acquiring relevant data; it is not appropriate to use the related graphics as data. ArcOD gives no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of these data. It is strongly recommended that these data are directly acquired from a RAS or ArcOD server and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. Although these data have been processed successfully on computer systems at ArcOD, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the utility of the data on other systems for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data and aggregate use with other data.
Sirenko B.I. , ed (2001), List of species of free-living invertebrates of Eurasian Arctic seas and adjacent deep waters, Explorations of the fauna of the seas, 51, 59, 1-132, St.Petersburg
Graham, C. H., S. Ferrier, F. Huettmann, C. Moritz and A.T. Peterson (2004), New developments in museum-based informatics and applications in biodiversity analysis, Trends in Ecology and Evolution (TREE), 19, 497-503
Smirnov I.S. et al. (2005), Creation of the information retrieval system for collection of the marine animals (fish and invertebrates) at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Proceedings ‘Ocean Biodiversity Informatics’ – International Conference on Marine Biodiversity Data Management, Hamburg, German, 29 November-1 December 2004 IOC Workshop Report No. x / BSH/ VLIZ Special Publication 20 In Vanden Berghe, E. et al.