Sub-annually resolved ice core chemistry data from various sites on the Antarctic Ice Sheet were obtained from 1999 to 2008 during the US International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (US ITASE) deployments. Researchers conducted experiments approximately every 100-300 km looking for clues representing climatic conditions over the past 200-1000+ years. Ice cores, obtained for the ... glaciochemical component of the US ITASE research, were analyzed for soluble major ion content and in some cases trace elements. At each site, a ~3-inch diameter ice core was drilled to depths as great as 120 m. Surface snow samples were collected every ~10-40 km. High-resolution chemical analysis (up to ~75 measurements per meter) was used to define each core-chemistry year based on peaks in Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, CH3SO3- (methylsulfonate), and in some cases trace elements. Extreme events such as volcanic eruptions provide absolute age horizons within each core that are easily identified in chemical profiles. Our chemical analysis is also useful for quantifying anthropogenic impact, biogeochemical cycling, and for reconstructing past atmospheric circulation patterns.
The salinity data were gathered by USGS with additional data provided by Everglades National Park (ENP) and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) from 1994 through 1997. The files for 1998-2001 contain only data collected by the USGS.
Surface salinity data are available for November, 1994; January, April, June, August, October, and December, 1995; February, ... April, June, August, October, and December, 1996; January, April, June, August, October, and December, 1997; and February, April, May, August, October, and December, 1998; February, April, June, and August, 1999; December 2000; and April, June, August, and November 2001. Data from November 1994 through August 1997 include the point ID, date, salinity in ppt, and the longitude and latitude of the point in decimal degrees. From October 1997 through August 1999, the time of data collection is also included. From February 1998 through August 1999 water temperature is included. The data for December 2000 contain on the ID, latitude and longitude and the salinity value. The data for 2001 contain the ID, latitude, longitude, salinity, conductivity, and water temperature.
Bottom salinity data is available for November 1994; January, April, June, August, October, and December of 1995; and February, April, June, August, October, and December of 1996. Bottom salinity data collection ceased in December 1996. The data contain the ID, date, salinity value,and longitude and latitude of the collection point.
Local information was recorded in the Bay using a military style GPS unit - Rockwell Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver PLGR+96 with a precision of +/- 10m.
The USGS conducted salinity surveys of Florida Bay approximately every other month from November 1994 through November 2001. The data collected during the surveys were supplemented with point data from Everglades National Park marine monitoring continuous stations and the South Florida Water Management District water quality monitoring stations collected by the Southeast Environmental Research Program at Florida International University from 1994 through 1997. The data were assembled and contoured using CPS3 (Contour Plotting System) software version 4.2 and ARC/INFO 7.0.3 to produce maps of the surface salinity in Florida Bay. Data points are shown on the maps. Surveys typically took between 3 and 5 days, depending on weather. Between 1994 and the summer of 1996 each survey collected salinity data at between 250 and 350 stations each consisting of a surface measurement 15 cm below the surface and a measurement on the bottom.
During the summer and fall of 1996, the USGS developed a digital measuring system so that subsequent surveys collected several thousand surface measurements. Due to the new digital system, the USGS no longer uses the South Florida Water Management District data nor the Everglades National Park data. Bottom salinity surveys were discontinued after December 1996.
Mention of specific software or hardware products does not constitute an endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.
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