Hydrology and Glaciology of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica - glacier mass balance, ablation and movement and melt record determined by monitoring of stream flow and lake level of glacier fed streams and lakes
A hydrological/glaciological study was conducted in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica from the 1969/70 summer until the 1990/91 season. The purpose of the hydrological/glaciological programme was to study present fluctuations of selected glaciers and of lakes and streams fed by meltwater because these fluctuations are indicators of climate change in this part of Antarctica. Knowledge of the ... interactions of glaciers and lakes and streams fed by meltwater in the dry valleys with present climate is needed for better interpretation of the history of these glaciers and lakes and for prediction of their future behaviour if the climate changes. The research program includes direct measurements of glacier mass balance and glacier margins and indirect measurements of glacier melt recorded by stream flow and changes in lake level. Stream flow was monitored on the Onyx River and various other meltwater streams in the Wright Valley throughout the study and more recently near the outlet of the Upper Victoria Lake in Victoria Valley, downstream from the Garwood Glacier lake in the Garwood Valley and at three sites on the Adams and Miers streams in the Miers Valley to expand the spatial variability. Water samples were collected at some sites and analysed for suspended sediment particles. Water temperature was recorded on the Onyx River. The water level of lakes throughout the Dry Valleys was monitored including Lake Vanda and Lake Brownworth in the Wright Valley, Lake Vida and Upper Victoria Lake in Victoria Valley, Lake Vashka and Lake Webb in the Barwick Valley, Lake Fryxell, Lake Chad (Hoare), Lake Henderson and Lake Bonney in the Taylor Valley, Lake Joyce and Lake House in the Pearce Valley and Lake Miers in the Miers Valley. Measurements were generally recorded at the beginning of the summer and again at the end of the summer. Continuous monitoring of Lake Vanda was conducted throughout the summer and later in the programme at Don Juan Pond (1980/81 season). Mass balances, ablation and other measurements were measured since 1969 on several glaciers within the Dry Valleys including the Sykes, Alberich, Heimdall, Upper Wright, Lower Wright, Clarke, Meserve, Bartley, Hart, Goodspeed, Denton and the Wilson Piedmont Glaciers in the Wright Valley, the Upper Victoria, Lower Victoria and Packard Glaciers in the Victoria Valley, the Upper Taylor, La Croix, Suess, Canada and Commonwealth Glaciers in the Taylor Valley and the Miers and Adams Glaciers in the Miers Valley. Not all measurements were made at each glacier in each season. Throughout the seasons of monitoring, climate data was collected. Daily observations by the investigators was coupled with the installation of met stations at various sites for various amounts of time.
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