Evolutionary changes in microsatellite and mitochondrial genes of Adelie penguins was investigated to provide knowledge about the genetic processes and mechanisms that give rise to variation and change on the genome. Serially preserved ancient DNA deposits of the penguins were able to be obtained from stratified deposits of subfossil penguin bones built up over time at penguin colonies at Cape ... Bird, Cape Crozier, Beaufort Island, sites in the Adelie Land Coast including Sabrina Islet, numerous sites at Cape Adare and sites in Terra Nova Bay including Seaview Bay, Northfoot Hills, Inexpressible Island, at the rear of Terra Nova Station and from Edmonson Point. The bones were obtained by digging down into the guano and sampling the bones found at different levels. DNA was extracted from the subfossil material and using PCR and DNA sequencing, the DNA was analysed by comparing microsatellite and mitochondrial genes. Negative controls containing only soils were also collected. As part of this study, the genetic variation in living populations was also determined by obtaining DNA samples (tissue and/or blood) from a number of colonies around Antarctica including Cape Royds, Cape Bird, Cape Crozier, Beaufort Island, Anver Island (Antarctic peninsula), Cape Hallett, Cape Wheatstone, Franklin Island, sites from the Adelie Land Coast including Sabrina Islet, Balleny Islands, Cape Adare, Port Martin and three sites inTerra Nova Bay including Inexpressible Island, Adelie Cove and Edmonson Point. All samples were analysed for microsatellite and mitochondrial genes.