The geology and the geothermal and volcanic activity of Mt Melbourne and Mt Erebus was investigated by surveying the summit craters of each volcano. At Mt Melbourne, the thermal activity was investigated at the crater summit including heated ground and ice pinnacles or towers. Two main areas of warm ground exist on the edge of the caldera and a third area lower on the north western slope. Moss ... growing in the heated areas was collected for biological studies and temperatures of the soil were measured. Hydrothermally altered rock and brightly coloured hydrothermal alteration products were sampled. Ash bands in ice cliffs on the south west slopes of Mt Melbourne were investigated. Snow accumulation was determined by digging a 2m pit and taking 1.9m ice cores. Samples every 5 cm in the core and snow samples were analysed for their deuterium content to determine annual snow accumulation rate and then an estimated age of deposition of the ash in the ice. At Mt Erebus, the geology was investigated with samples collected around the cone and side crater. The main crater was investigated by lowering one person into it and four gas samples from a fumarole, 4 salt samples and several geological specimens were collected. An ice cavern was investigated.