Soil samples were collected during January 1999 and 2000 from the ornithogenic soils of the Adelie penguin colony at Cape Bird, the volcanic soils at Cape Evans, the gravels and ornithogenic soils of Cape Royds, the western (upper) regions of the Miers Valley, the Canada Glacier site of special scientific interest at Lake Fryxell, Taylor Valley, the meltpools of the McMurdo Ice Shelf near Bratina ... Island and the area around Scott Base. Samples were collected with sterile transfer of surface and subsurface samples. Soil, water and atmospheric temperatures were monitored and recorded. In situ ATP analysis was used to measure soil microbial activity and microbial biomass in surface mineral soils of the Antarctic Dry Valleys, the Miers and Taylor Valley and they were compared with that of an ornithogenic soil at Cape Bird. The fatty acid content of soil samples was determined by gas chromatography analysis. Samples returned to the lab were tested with PCR methods to test for human enteric bacteria E.coli and Clostridium clostridiiforme as indicator organisms of human contamination and compared with pristine samples. Samples were also tested using PCR amplification of 16S rDNA and phylogenetic analysis.
The records of the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT), collected over a 20 year period from 1981 to 2000, provide regional, hazard-specific mortality and economic loss rates. A crude estimation of the global drought hazard mortality is developed using the EM-DAT regional mortality rates, population distributions from Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3), and frequency/distribution ... data from Global Drought Hazard Frequency and Distribution. To better reflect the confidence associated with the result, mortality figures are classified into deciles, 10 classes of an approximately equal number of grid cells of increasing mortality (item Value). Building upon a methodology developed by Sachs et al. (2003), a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) value (US$, 2000, purchase power parity adjusted (PPP)) is estimated for each grid cell. The process begins by determining the contribution of each subnational unit to national GDP using data of varied origins. The ratio of the subnational production to the national GDP is the contribution ratio. To ensure uniformity between countries, these contribution ratios are utilized with published World Bank estimates of GDP.
Once a standardized version of subnational GDP has been calculated, this value is further divided by the total population within the subnational unit. This subnational, per-person GDP value is multiplied by the grid cell population density to determine a GDP value for the grid cell. The GDP values presented in this dataset (item Gdpvalue) are not projections of impacted GDP, but rather the estimates of GDP that serve as a baseline for estimating hazard impacts. Furthermore, Gdpvalue is indicative of the GDP associated with each of the hazard risk deciles and not the individual grid cell.
Estimating the agricultural GDP (item Agvalue) follows a process similar to GDP. The amount of agricultural GDP is derived at the subnational unit using available data of various origins.
The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York, the Center for Hazards and Risk Research (CHRR), the Center for International Earth Science ... Information Network (CIESIN), and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank hold the copyright of this dataset. Users are prohibited from any commercial, non-free resale, or redistribution without explicit written permission from CHRR, CIESIN, or The World Bank. Use of this data set is restricted to scientific research only. Users should acknowledge CHRR, CIESIN, and The World Bank as the source used in the creation of any reports, publications, new data sets, derived products, or services resulting from the use of this data set. CHRR, CIESIN, and The World Bank also request reprints of any publications and notification of any redistribution efforts.
Center for Hazards and Risks Research (CHRR)/Columbia University, Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN)/Columbia University, and International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI)/Columbia University (2005), Global Drought Hazard Frequency and Distribution, Center for Hazards and Risk Research (CHRR)/Columbia University, Palisades, NY, http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/ndh-drought-hazard-freque...
Center for Hazards and Risk Research (CHRR)/Columbia University, Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN)/Columbia University, and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank (2005), Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles, Center for Hazards and Risk Research (CHRR)/Columbia University, Palisades, NY, http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/ndh-drought-proportional-...
Center for Hazards and Risk Research (CHRR)/Columbia University, Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN)/Columbia University, and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank (2005), Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles, Center for Hazards and Risk Research (CHRR)/Columbia University, Palisades, NY, http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/ndh-drought-total-economi...