In recent years, evidence has accumulated to indicate that epidemic strains of influenza virus have developed from animal strains, including those occurring in birds. Interest in the ecology of influenza viruses and relationship between animal and human strains is increasing. Since many influenza viruses have been isolated from birds, including pelagic birds, it is important to discover the extent to which these viruses occur in birds of all regions. Specimens were collected from 102 penguins and 60 skua at Cape Bird. Swabs were taken from the trachea and cloaca and a small sample of blood was taken for analysis for virus or antibodies. Blood samples were allowed to clot and the serum was removed. The clots were analysed for arboviruses.
Alexander, D.J. Manvell, R.J. Collins, M.S. Brockman, S.J. Westbury, H.A. Morgan , I. Austin, F.J. 1989 Characterization of paramyxoviruses isolated from penguins in Antarctica and sub-Antarctica during 1976-1979. Archives of virology 109: 135-143