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Life In The Ice: Microbial Diversity and Function in Antarctic Sea Ice Ecosystems
Entry ID: K043_2010_2012_NZ_2


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Summary
Abstract: Our hypothesis is that ‘spatial and temporal variations in diversity and ecosystem function of the sea ice microbial community are sensitive indicators of changing climatic conditions’. The research will develop baseline long-term data on microbial biodiversity and community structure in the “grass” of ice-covered regions – the primary and secondary producers at the base of the food web. We will do this using both conventional methods and molecular technology, and will quantify abundances and species identifications using a range of traditional and modern techniques including DNA fingerprints, high throughput sequencing and single cell genome amplification. We will develop an understanding of the functional role of various components of the sea ice microbial community using ecophysiological methods we have developed over nearly 20 years of Antarctic research coupled with new technologies brought together with our international collaborators on this project.

Microorganisms are the most diverse and by far the most abundant biological entities in marine environments and they are often sensitive indicators of environmental change because of their rapid lifecycles. Given the projected changes to the volume and extent of annual sea ice, SIMCO or ‘sea ice microbial communities’ provide an ideal model system to measure the effects of environmental change in Polar Regions. This research will generate a bio-inventory of the microorganisms in sea ice using both conventional methods and molecular technology, and will quantify abundances to generate community fingerprints for each field site.

In 2010-2011 our research was conducted at Cape Evans. The following data was collected.
- CTD (conductivity/temperature/depth) casts of temperature, conductivity, salinity, depth, live chlorophyll were made each day at solar noon through the sea ice to bottom (25m).
- PAR recorded at 5m above sea ice, using Skye light sensors. (units of microeinsteins /m2/s for PAR and microW per cm2 for UVB. Data were recorded daily at solar noon.
- HOBO data loggers embedded in sea ice at approx 300mm intervals through the depth of the ice (2m). Recording continuously at 10 min intervals.

In 2011-2012 our research was conducted at Turtle Rock and Cape Evans. The following data was collected.
- Turtle rock: CTD casts of temperature, conductivity, salinity, depth, live chlorophyll were made each day at solar noon through the sea ice to bottom (25m).
- Air temperature, solar visible and UVB irradiances were recorded each day at solar noon (approx 1330)
- Cape Evans: CTD casts of temperature, conductivity, salinity, depth, live chlorophyll were madeon selected days at approximately solar noon through the sea ice to bottom (30m)

Geographic Coverage
 N: -77.633 S: -77.633  E: 166.4  W: 166.4
 N: -77.7443 S: -77.7443  E: 166.7757  W: 166.7757
 N: -77.38 S: -77.38  E: 166.24  W: 166.24

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 2011-11-08


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > CAPE EVANS
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > TURTLE ROCK
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >PROTISTS >PLANKTON >PHYTOPLANKTON
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >PLANTS >MICROALGAE >DIATOMS
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >PLANTS >MICROALGAE >DINOFLAGELLATES
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >BACTERIA/ARCHAEA >CYANOBACTERIA (BLUE-GREEN ALGAE)    [Definition]
OCEANS >OCEAN CHEMISTRY >CHLOROPHYLL


ISO Topic Category
BIOTA
CLIMATOLOGY/METEOROLOGY/ATMOSPHERE
ENVIRONMENT
OCEANS


Platform
LABORATORY    [Information]
FIELD INVESTIGATION    [Information]
FIELD SURVEYS    [Information]


Instrument
CTD >Conductivity, Temperature, Depth    [Information]
Thermometers    [Information]


Project
EBA >Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic    [Information]


Quality
All data is stored at Victoria University, Wellington. If you require any further information please contact the investigator.


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Data Center
Antarctica New Zealand, New Zealand Antarctic Institute, New Zealand    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/

Data Center Personnel
Name: CAROLINE MACLAURIN
Phone: (03) 358 0200
Fax: (03) 358 0211
Email: c.maclaurin at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch 8140
Country: New Zealand


Personnel
KEN RYAN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +64 4 463 6083
Fax: +64 4 463 5331
Email: ken.ryan at vuw.ac.nz
Contact Address:
Victoria University of Wellington
School of Biological Sciences
PO BOX 600
City: Wellington
Postal Code: 6140
Country: New Zealand



Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2012-06-27
Last DIF Revision Date: 2012-06-29


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