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Population regulation and demography in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at three penguin colonies on Ross Island (Cape Bird, Cape Crozier and Cape Royds)
Entry ID: K122_1994_2012_NZ_2


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Summary
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the factors regulating population size and colony distribution of Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at three colonies on Ross Island (Cape Royds, Bird and Crozier) and when logistics allowed Beaufort Island through studying the importance of key resources (nesting space and food) and the way they are allocated by behavioural traits (philopatry, immigration and emigrations). A range of techniques was used to collect data. A sub-colony was fenced off and an automated weighbridge and data logger was installed at each colony. Several pairs of breeding birds were implanted with a passively interrogated transponder. When a bird steps on the weighbridge, the data logger would record direction of travel, weight and tag number, if a tag was present. These data were used to determine foraging effort (feeding trip duration and food load size). The productivity and chick condition index was measured in birds in the enclosure and those in an undisturbed colony to check for negative effects of the weighbridge. The stomach contents of Adelie penguin adults and chicks were examined for food prey species over time and between colonies. The diet quality was compared by analysing stable isotope (C and N) ratios in samples collected from dead chicks (protein rich, lipid poor tissue). GIS and satellite images were used to determine the effects of sea ice conditions on colony success (availability of food, breeding success, etc). To measure the effect of sea ice extent and availability of food on breeding success, 50 chicks/week/colony were randomly caught, weighed and flipper length measured to calculate a chick condition index as an indication of food availability during chick rearing stage. These data were comparable between years and colonies. To measure the immigration/emigration and philopatry behaviour role in colony size and distribution, chicks were banded at each colony (up to 1000 chicks/colony/season). In following seasons, searches were made for banded penguins at all colonies to estimate age specific fecundity and survival rates, age of first breeding and to measure immigration/emigration rates for each of the study colonies. The role of natal philopatry in the structure of colony formation was assessed by measuring genetic homogeneity among and within the colonies on Ross Island using mitochondrial DNA analysis. Radio telemetry, satellite tracking and time depth recorders were used to track individual penguins at sea to determine their foraging behaviour. To track post breeding migration, winter migration and over wintering feeding grounds, archival tags that determine geo-location were deployed on birds from Cape Royds and Crozier. Birds were recaptured the following season and data downloaded.

Blood samples and biometrics (e.g. weight and flipper length) collected from TDR adults to determine physiological capabilities collected, as well as biometrics from natal chicks. Dorsal and ventral feathers collected from each of the birds fitted with devices to determine sex. Productivity (chicks per pair), peak hatch and peak creche data collected using 2-3 Reference colonies and egg, chick and adult counts of 15 sub-colonies annually since 1996. Foraging trip frequencies and food load sizes collected using weighbridge measured annually between 20 Nov to 20 Jan. Chick condition index (weights and flipper length) collected weekly between 26 Dec and 22 Jan. Blood samples to determine pathogen loadings collected from breeding and non-breeding birds during the 2010-11 season at Cape Bird and (Cape Crozier via B-031). Mammal point surveys conducted opportunistically (daily mostly) since 2000.

Related URL
Link: VIEW PROFESSIONAL HOME PAGE
Description: Project co-ordinator homepage. Please contact Phil Lyver for more information regarding data.


Link: VIEW PROFESSIONAL HOME PAGE
Description: Project specialist. Please contact Kerry Barton for more information regarding the data.


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE


Link: VIEW PROJECT HOME PAGE


Geographic Coverage
 N: -77.142 S: -77.5555  E: 169.2705  W: 166.1655
 N: -77.21807 S: -77.21807  E: 166.43643  W: 166.43643

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 1994-12-01


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION >ANIMALS/VERTEBRATES >BIRDS >PENGUINS
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >USE/FEEDING HABITATS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >POPULATION DYNAMICS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >SPECIES/POPULATION INTERACTIONS >SURVIVAL RATES    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY DYNAMICS >INDICATOR SPECIES    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY DYNAMICS >SPECIES RECRUITMENT    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS >FOOD-WEB DYNAMICS    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
BIOTA


Platform
FIELD SURVEYS    [Information]
SATELLITES    [Information]


Instrument
AWIN >Automatic Weigh and Identification Nest-System    [Information]
GPS >Global Positioning System    [Information]


Quality
The data has been collected by Landcare Research and is held at this organisation. Please contact the investigator for more information.


Keywords
Adelie Penguin
Pygoscelis adeliae
Demography
Foraging strategies
Diet
Reproductive effort


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Data Center
Antarctica New Zealand, New Zealand Antarctic Institute, New Zealand    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/

Data Center Personnel
Name: SHULAMIT GORDON
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: s.gordon at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


Personnel
PHIL LYVER
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +64 3 321 9999
Fax: +64 3 321 9998
Email: lyverp at landcareresearch.co.nz
Contact Address:
Landcare Research
PO Box 40
City: Lincoln
Postal Code: 7640
Country: NEW ZEALAND


CEISHA POIROT
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: c.poirot at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


SHULAMIT GORDON
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: s.gordon at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


Publications/References
Lescroel, A., Ballard, G., Toniolo, V., Barton, K.J., Wilson, P.R., Lyver, P.O’B. and Ainley, D.G. 2010. Working less to gain more: when breeding quality relates to foraging efficiency. Ecology 91: 2044-2055.

Ballance,, L.T., Ainley, D.G., Ballard, G. and Barton, K. 2009. An energetic correlate between colony size and foraging effort in seabirds, an example of the Adelie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae. Journal of Avian Biology 40: 279-288.

Ainley, D. Ballard, G. Ackley, S. Blight, L.K. Eastman, J.T. Emslie, S. D. Lescroel, A.. Olmastroni, S. Townsend, S.E. Tynan, C.T. Wilson, P. and Woehler, E. (2007). Opinion: paradigm lost, or is top-down forcing no longer significant in the Antarctic marine ecosystem? Antarctic Science 19(3): 283-290.

Dugger, K.M. Ballard, G. Ainley, D.G. Barton, K.J. (2006). Effects of flipper bands on foraging behaviour and survival of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis Adeliae). Auk 123(3): 858-869.

Ainley, D.G. Ballard, G. Karl, B.J. Duger, K.M. (2005). Leopard seal predation rates at penguin colonies of different size. Antarctic Science, 17(3): 335-340.

Ainley, D.G. Clarke, E.D. Arrigo, K. Fraser, W.R. Kato, A. Barton, K.J. Wilson, P.R. (2005). Decadal-scale changes in the climate and biota of the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, 1950s to the 1990s. Antarctic Science 17(2): 171-182.

Ainley, D.G. Ribic, C.A. Ballard, G. Heath, S. Gaffney, I. Karl, B.J. Barton, K.J. Wilson, P.R. Webb, S. (2004). Geographic structure of Adelie penguin populations: overlap in colony-specific foraging areas. Ecological monographs 74(1): 159-178.

Ainley, D.G. Ballard, G. Barton, K.J. Karl, B.J. Rau, G.H. Ribic, C.A. Wilson, P.R. (2003). Spatial and temporal variation of diet within a presumed metapopulation of Adelie penguins. Condor 105: 95-106.

Ballard, G. Ainley, D.G. Ribic, C.A. Barton, K.J. (2001). Effect of instrument attachment on foraging trip duration and nesting success of Adélie penguins. Condor 103: 481-490.

Ainley, D.G. Wilson, P.R. Barton, K.J. Ballard, G. Nur, N. Karl, B. (1998). Diet and foraging effort of Adélie penguins in relation to pack-ice conditions in the southern Ross Sea. Polar Biology 20(5): 311-319..

Blackburn, N. Taylor, R.H. Wilson, P.R. (1991). An interpretation of the growth of the Adélie penguin rookery at Cape Royds, 1955-1990. New Zealand journal of ecology 15(2): 117-121.

Sadleir, R.M.F. Lay, K.M. (1990). Foraging movements of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) in McMurdo Sound. in: Penguin biology. Davis L.S. Darby J.T. (eds) San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp.157-179

Sadleir, R.M.F.S. Taylor, R.H. Taylor, G.A. Breeding of Antarctic terns (Sterna vittata bethunei). Notornis 33(4): 264-265, 1986.

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2005-09-22
Last DIF Revision Date: 2012-06-25


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